Month: April, 2018

Confirmed: Uranus Smells Like Farts

I’m sick and tired of Uranus jokes. It’s time to get serious about Uranus, because there is some really serious science surrounding Uranus’s mysteries. And wow, is Uranus mysterious.

Following some of our very serious informed speculation, scientists have directly observed a molecule in the planet’s deep atmosphere that confirms Uranus’s stench.

That molecule is hydrogen sulfide, and it’s important for more reasons than just determining the planet’s scent.

It adds another piece of information about the planets and how they form,” study author Patrick Irwin from the University of Oxford told Gizmodo.

Uranus and Neptune formed in a colder part of the solar nebula,” the early stage of our solar system when it was just our young sun and lots of dust, “than Jupiter and Saturn.”




Scientists have long assumed that cloud tops near the giant green planet’s surface contained hydrogen sulfide and ammonia, but that hypothesis has been based on inference rather than direct observations.

Scientists figured these molecules were there based on an unexplained absence of certain wavelengths of light.

It’s like guessing something’s identity based on a warped version of the shadow it casts without really looking at it.

The team peered deep into Uranus’s atmosphere, at and below the part we might call its “surface,” using the Gemini-North’s Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrometer in Hawaii.

They report that they’ve directly detected the molecule at around 0.4-0.8 parts per million as ice in its cloud tops.

They measured more hydrogen sulfide than ammonia, and also the exact concentration of hydrogen sulfide required to produce a rotten-egg fart smell. They published their paper today in Nature Astronomy.

Irwin confirmed that visiting astronauts would notice the stench as they descended into the planet’s atmosphere.

Things would get more dangerous once they got below the hydrogen sulfide cloud deck, where they’d experience the coldest atmosphere in the solar system and probably die.

This observation is actually important for understanding the composition of the dust disk that formed the Sun, as well as why Jupiter and Saturn formed into gas giants but Uranus and Neptune remained slightly smaller ice giants.

The researchers found less ammonia than expected, probably due to where Uranus formed in the disk of dust—someplace with just the right temperature and composition to make a planet like Uranus, explained Imke de Pater from the University of California, Berkeley in a commentary.

Perhaps one day human astronauts will be lucky enough to sniff Uranus directly!

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Pass it on: Popular Science

5 Ways to Recycle Your Old Smartphone

Having your new phone on hand, you finally have an excuse to ditch your current smartphone. Even if your old phone’s glory days are far behind it, you can still get some value when you decide to get rid of it.

Recycling your smartphone is a great way to reduce electronic waste, help your outdated tech find a new life, support a good cause or even make a little money.




According to a November 2012 survey by Lookout, 62% of American households have old cellphones lying around, unused.

Discarded iPhones alone account for $9 billion of unused goods in consumers’ homes.

Here are eight things you can do to make parting with your old phone that much more exciting.

1. Donate Your Phone to the Troops

Non-profit Phones for Soldiers works to provide U.S. troops with a cost-free way to call home from their active stations.

Through recycling partner Mindful eCycling, old mobile phones are traded in for calling cards and other communications devices.

2. Sell It on Glyde

Looking for a one-stop shop for selling back all the old tech in your home?

Glyde lets you buy and sell a variety of devices, plus it compares the amounts you can fetch on its site with offers from Amazon, Apple and Gazelle.

3. Put It on an Appstand

This picture frame for your iPhone 3 or 3GS turns your old iPhone into a lovely piece of home decor.

Available on sale for $8.73, the Appstand lets you breathe new life into your outdated Apple smartphone.

4. Sell It Back to Apple

Apple will trade your old iPhone for an Apple gift card through its Reuse and Recycling program. Amounts vary depending on your phone’s make and model.

5. Donate to Survivors of Domestic Violence

Verizon has collected more than 10 million phones since 2001 for victims of domestic abuse: one in four U.S. women, one in seven men and nearly 3 million children.

To donate your old phone, drop it at a Verizon store, ship it or donate to a HopeLine phone drive.

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A Mysterious New Form Of DNA Was Just Discovered In Human Cells

When you think of DNA, odds are, you picture the famous double helix, a ladder-like structure elegantly twisted like a corkscrew.

But DNA doesn’t always assume this form. The existence of one shape of DNA in humans, in particular — a four-stranded knot of genetic code — has been controversial among scientists for years.

Because this so-called i-motif loves acidic environments (a condition that scientists can create in the lab but doesn’t naturally occur in the body), many scientists thought that it couldn’t possibly exist in human cells.

But in recent years, studies have pointed to the possibility that this bizarre form of DNA could, in fact, exist in living humans.

Now, a new study published last April 23 in the journal Nature Chemistry provides the first direct evidence that it does exist and that it may play an important role in regulating our genes.




To spot the i-motifs, Dinger and his team designed an antibody — a protein that targets foreign invaders in the body — to specifically find and latch onto i-motifs.

They tagged these antibodies with a fluorescent dye and then injected them into human cells in the lab.

Using powerful microscopes, they spotted a bunch of tiny, glowing, green dots — colored antibodies holding onto elusive i-motifs.

According to Dinger, the hardest part about publishing this paper was proving that the antibody latched only onto i-motifs and not onto other shapes of DNA.

They did this by testing how the antibody interacted with other forms of DNA, such as the classic double helix and a better-studied structure related to the i-motif, called the G4 quadruplex.

Sure enough, the antibody proved faithful — it didn’t bind to either of these other forms.

This is a very exciting discovery,” said Zoe Waller, a senior lecturer in chemical biology at the University of East Anglia in the United Kingdom who was not involved with the study.

“This work is the icing on what is now quite a large cake of evidence that these [forms of DNA] do exist in vivo and are worthy of further study.”

What really fascinated the team, Dinger told Live Science, was not only that these i-motifs existed in living cells but that these green lightstwinkled on and off — meaning the i-motifs folded into existence and then unfurled, repeatedly.

In particular, the researchers found that the DNA folded into i-motifs at higher rates during a specific stage of transcription — the process that kicks off the translation of genes into proteins — when the DNA was just beginning to actively transcribe.

Later, the DNA unfolded back into its usual form, and the i-motifs disappeared. According to Dinger, this probably means the i-motifs play a very specific role in regulating the transcription process.

Indeed, this study supports previous research in lab dishes that these folds occur in areas that regulate genes.

These areas include the very ends of chromosomes called “telomeres” that are thought to play a role in aging and regions called promoters which are tasked with turning genes on and off.

But despite knowing some of the regions in which these folds can appear, the researchers don’t yet know which genes the folds control or what happens when you disturb the cell so that it can’t form these structures.

These types of drugs could be helpful for cancer treatment, for example.

One problem with certain cancer treatments is that they aren’t selective enough in targeting the problematic stretches of DNA, said Laurence Hurley, a professor at the University of Arizona and the chief scientific officer of Reglagene, a company that designs therapeutic molecules to target four-stranded DNA like i-motifs.

Instead, cancer drugs may attach to other parts of DNA as well, leading to possibly harmful side effects, said Hurley, who was not part of the new study.

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Alternative Medicine For Cancer More Than Doubles Death Risk

Crystal healing stones are evidently a less effective way of beating a tumor.

Going the route of alternative medicine to treat a form of curable cancer instead of undergoing conventional treatment more than doubles a person’s risk of dying, according to a new study from Yale University researchers.

One in three Americans has engaged in some kind of alt-therapy with varying results, but when it comes to cancer, the data suggests that herbs and crystals will not save a life.




We now have evidence to suggest that using alternative medicine in place of proven cancer therapies results in worse survival,” lead researcher Skyler Johnson told the Yale News.

The researchers looked at 10 years’ worth of records from the National Cancer Database and found that 281 patients within that time who had early-stage breast, lung, prostate or colorectal cancer who decided to take an alternative approach to their treatment.

Those patients were then compared to 560 others with the same diagnoses who chose more scientific approaches like chemotherapy, surgery and radiation.

Patients who chose alternative medicine approaches that include things like “herbs, botanicals, homeopathy, special diets or energy crystals — which are basically just stones that people believe to have healing powers,” Dr. Johnson said.

To account for disparities that people face in the medical world the researchers placed biases in favor of the alternative medicine group — they were all younger, more affluent and were otherwise healthy.

These patients should be doing better than the standard therapy group, but they’re not,” researcher James Yu told MedPage Today.

That’s a scary thing to me. These are young patients who could potentially be cured, and they’re being sold snake oil by unscrupulous alternative medicine practitioners.

With this data and the urging of oncologists and all of their cancer expertise, the researchers are hopeful that doctors can educate their patients and communicate to them all of the drastic risks of alternative medical approaches.

Because of patient autonomy, they can do whatever they want,” Yu said. “We’re always advising them (but) we can’t make them do anything.

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Pass it on: New Scientist

How To Set Up Windows Hello Facial Recognition On Your Laptop

Using your Windows 10 laptop or tablet’s built-in webcam, Hello uses facial recognition to get you in and working in under two seconds.

It also works with more than a dozen apps like DropBox, iHeartRadio and OneDrive, so you can skip typing in a password.

Unfortunately, not every webcam will work with Windows Hello.

Your PC will need an infrared (IR) camera to use the feature, which are more common in new laptops and two-in-ones from the past couple years, including those from Dell, Lenovo and Asus.

If you’re not ready for a new PC, you can opt to buy a supported external webcam like Logitech’s Brio 4K Pro or Razer’s Stargazer. They’re pricey, but cheaper than buying a new laptop just to get facial recognition.

If you’re not entirely sure what, if any, Windows Hello support your computer has it’s very easy to check.

In the Cortana search bar at the lower left of your screen type “sign-in options” or simply click on the the microphone icon and ask Cortana for sign-in options.




Once you’re on the sign-in options screen, you’ll see the Windows Hello options available to you. If your system’s webcam supports face recognition, you’ll see the option to set it up.

Click “Set up” and you’re on your way.

Note that if the “Set up” button is grayed out, it’s because you must set up a system password before you can use other sign-in options.

On the same screen, you click the Add button under the Password heading and create a password. Once that’s done, your Windows Hello options should no longer be grayed out.

Once you click through to set it up, you’ll hit a “Welcome to Windows Hello” screen, which simply gives you a last chance to back out of setting it up.

Don’t worry, though: If you decide you don’t want to use face recognition, you can delete the profile later.

Click the “Get started” button and the IR camera will turn on and scan your face. Just keeping looking directly at the camera until the blue status bar below your picture finishes.

It takes just a couple seconds to finish as long as you keep your head still and looking at the camera.

Create a PIN

Once it completes, you’re given the option to improve recognition by running the IR camera scan again. You should do this if you regularly wear glasses or a hat so you can run the scan with those things on and off.

Or run it with your head at slightly different angles while still looking at the camera.

After that, you’ll be asked to set up a PIN to get you into Windows if for some reason Hello is not available or is having trouble recognizing your face, which is a pretty rare experience in my testing.

First, you’ll be asked to enter your system password, and then you’ll be asked to create a PIN, which cannot be the same as your password.

Look to unlock

In the Windows Hello settings under sign-in options, you have the option to automatically dismiss the lock screen if Windows recognizes your face.

This means that as soon as you boot up or wake your PC from sleep, it will scan your face, unlock and take you to your Desktop or whatever you were working on last in less than two seconds.

If you have this option off, you’ll be asked to dismiss the lock screen manually after Windows recognizes your face, which means clicking a mouse button, keyboard key or swiping your touchscreen.

Otherwise, you should be all set up for facial recognition with Windows Hello.

If you’ve skipped using a system password in the past because you hate having one more password to remember, face recognition is a good better-than-nothing compromise.

And it works so well, you might find yourself locking your computer down just to use it.

Let your fingers do the unlocking

Windows Hello can also be used with integrated or add-on fingerprint readers.

They accomplish the same task, but require you to lift your finger to a sensor to quickly sign you into your computer and apps, make in-app purchases or sign into websites with Microsoft’s Edge browser.

The setup process is essentially the same as the facial recognition, you’ll just use your finger on a sensor instead of looking at your camera.

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From Pancakes To Soccer Balls, New Study Shows How Galaxies Change Shape As They Age

A selection of SAMI galaxies imaged with the Hyper Suprime Cam on the Subaru Telescope in Hawaii. National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), Caroline Foster (The University of Sydney) and Dan Taranu (University of Western Australia)

Galaxies are a fundamental part of the 13.7 billion-year-old universe. Understanding how a system as complex and striking as our own Milky Way galaxy formed after the Big Bang is one of the great themes of modern astronomy.

Our research, published today in Nature Astronomy, has identified a surprising connection between the age of a galaxy and its three-dimensional shape.

As galaxies get older they get rounder, and fall victim to the middle-aged spread that catches many of us humans here on Earth.

We’ve known for a long time that shape and age are linked in very extreme galaxies – that is, very flat ones and very round ones.

But this is the first time we have shown this is true for all kinds of galaxies – all shapes, all ages, all masses.




Unveiling the true face of a galaxy

In this study we calculated both the age and shape of galaxies using different techniques.

Assigning an age to a galaxy is tricky. They don’t have a single birth date for when they suddenly popped into existence.

We assessed the average age of the stars in a galaxy as a measure of the galaxy’s age. Young galaxies have a large fraction of recently formed hot blue stars, whereas old galaxies mostly contain colder red stars formed shortly after the Big Bang.

Spectroscopy — splitting the light from a galaxy into many different colours — allows us to measure the average age of stars in a galaxy.

This technique gives a much higher precision than simply using blue or red images as is typically done.

To measure a galaxy’s true three-dimensional shape and ellipticity, you have to measure how its stars move around.

Ellipticity is simply a measure of how squashed a galaxy is with respect to a perfect sphere. An ellipticity of zero means a galaxy is a perfect sphere like a soccer ball.

But as the measured ellipticity increases from zero towards one, the galaxy becomes more and more squashed – from a roundish pumpkin shape to a thin disk like a pancake.

We see galaxies as two-dimensional images projected onto the sky, but that doesn’t tell us what they really look like in three dimensions.

If we can also measure how the stars in a galaxy are moving we can infer their true, three-dimensional shape.

Spectroscopy lets us do this via the Doppler effect. We can measure shifts in the wavelength of light emitted by stars, which depend on whether those stars are moving towards us or away from us, and so measure their motions.

We did this using SAMI, the Sydney-Australian-Astronomical-Observatory Multi-object Integral-Field Spectrograph, on the 3.9-metre Anglo-Australian Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory.

The SAMI instrument provides 13 optical fibre units that can “dissect” galaxies using spectroscopy, providing unique 3D data.

Over the past couple of years, the SAMI Galaxy Survey team has gathered 3D measurements for more than a thousand galaxies of all kinds, and with a hundred-fold range in mass.

Closer to home

If we look at our own Milky Way galaxy, which is more than 10 billion years old, we can see examples of this story.

The youngest part of the Milky Way, where stars are still being formed, is the thin disk, which has a very squashed, pancake-like shape.

The Milky Way also contains rounder and older components, a thick disk and a bulge, but their origin is still mostly unknown.

We know that eventually the Milky Way will merge with our galactic neighbour, the Andromeda galaxy. Predictions are that this will result in a very round, very old giant elliptical galaxy.

So, by studying the processes that shape other nearby galaxies, we can learn a lot about the past, and the fate of our own.

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IBM Reveals Record-Breaking ‘Quantum Chandelier’ In Race To Revolutionize Computing

Inside the machine: Superconducting Coaxial Lines inside the Q machine unveiled by IBM.

IBM has announced a milestone in its race against Google and other big tech firms to build a powerful quantum computer.

Dario Gil, who leads IBM’s quantum computing and artificial intelligence research division, said Friday that the company’s scientists have successfully built and measured a processor prototype with 50 quantum bits, known as qubits.

Gil says it’s the first time any company has built a quantum computer at this scale.

Quantum computing, a technology that’s still in its early phases, uses the quirks of quantum physics to perform calculations at far higher speeds than current computers.

Quantum computing promises to be able to solve certain problems – such as chemical simulations and types of optimization – that will forever be beyond the practical reach of classical machines,’ IBM said.




In a recent Nature paper, the IBM Q team pioneered a new way to look at chemistry problems using quantum hardware that could one day transform the way new drugs and materials are discovered, for instance.

IBM also announced it will allow customer to access a slightly slower version of the system online for the first time.

We are, and always have been, focused on building technology with the potential to create value for our clients and the world,’ said Dario Gil, vice president of AI and IBM Q, IBM Research.

The ability to reliably operate several working quantum systems and putting them online was not possible just a few years ago.

‘Now, we can scale IBM processors up to 50 qubits due to tremendous feats of science and engineering.

IBM scientists have successfully built and measured a processor prototype with 50 quantum bits, known as qubits, the first time any company has built a quantum computer at this scale. Pictured, part of the machine.

‘These latest advances show that we are quickly making quantum systems and tools available that could offer an advantage for tackling problems outside the realm of classical machines.’

Seth Lloyd, an MIT mechanical engineering professor not involved in IBM’s research, says it’s likely that IBM still has glitches to work out but the 50-qubit announcement is a sign of significant progress.

The first IBM systems available online to clients will have a 20 qubit processor,

Over 60,000 users have run over 1.7M quantum experiments and generated over 35 third-party research publications using IBM’s system, the firm said.

Users have registered from over 1500 universities, 300 high schools, and 300 private institutions worldwide, many of whom are accessing the IBM Q experience as part of their formal education.

Inside an IBM Dilution Refrigerator: The gold colored coaxial cables are used to send inputs and outputs from inside the fridge to the external parts of the machine.

I use the IBM Q experience and QISKit as an integral part of my classroom teaching on quantum computing, and I cannot emphasize enough how important it is.

In prior years, the course was interesting theoretically, but felt like it described some far off future,’ said Andrew Houck, professor of electrical engineering, Princeton University.

‘Thanks to this incredible resource that IBM offers, I have students run actual quantum algorithms on a real quantum computer as part of their assignments!’

‘Being able to work on IBM’s quantum hardware and have access through an open source platform like QISKit has been crucial in helping us to understand what algorithms–and real-world use cases–might be viable to run on near-term processors,’ said Matt Johnson, CEO, QC Ware.

‘Simulators don’t currently capture the nuances of the actual quantum hardware platforms, and nothing is more convincing for a proof-of-concept than results obtained from an actual quantum processor.’

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The 2018 Lyrid Meteor Shower Will Light Up The Sky On Earth Day.

One of the best meteor showers of the year coincides with Earth Day this year — meaning people all over the world will have the chance to see the 2018 Lyrid meteor shower light up the sky.

The Lyrids peak on April 22–23. A Half Moon may make viewing conditions difficult. Named after constellation Lyra, the Lyrids are one of the oldest known meteor showers.

What is the Lyrid meteor shower?

The Lyrid meteor shower happens annually, and according to a video from NASA’S Jet Propulsion Laboratory, it is active from April 14 until April 30 — and peaks on April 22.

It is the “first significant meteor shower in a few months,” according to AccuWeather’s astronomy blogger Dave Samuhel.




And while it is only a moderately active meteor shower, it is the oldest one on record and was first recorded by the Chinese in 687 B.C.

What stargazers see when they’re observing the Lyrid meteor shower is the Earth’s orbit coming into contact with dust left behind from a comet — in this case Comet Thatcher (C/1861 G1), which was discovered in 1861 by A.E. Thatcher.

Comet Thatcher orbits the sun roughly every 415 years, according to NASA. The debris left behind by the comet burns up in our atmosphere creating fiery streaks observed in the night sky.

A long exposure photograph shows how intense the Milky Way can be

Where is the best place to see the meteor shower?

Special equipment — telescopes, binoculars — is not necessary to view the Lyrid meteor shower, which is safe to view with the naked eye.

However, to increase your chances of seeing this annual meteor shower, it’s best to head to a dark area away from light pollution.

And while the Lyrid meteor shower should be viewable no matter your location, there are a few other variables to take into consideration: hemisphere and weather.

For those in the U.S., AccuWeather has a map showing what areas of the country will have good, fair, or poor conditions for viewing.

According to the map, those with the best optics for viewing the Lyrid meteor shower are on the East Coast from Pennsylvania to Maine as well as a swath on the West Coast that includes parts of Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Washington and California.

The Lyrid meteor shower “favors the Northern Hemisphere,” according to EarthSky’s McClure, because “the higher [the star] Vega climbs into your sky, the more meteors you’re likely to see.

Vega is part of the constellation Lyra — where the Lyrids get their name, because it looks like they are radiating from the constellation — and it is located in the Northern Celestial Hemisphere.

However, those in the Southern Hemisphere will have to wait until the “early hours of the morning before reasonable rates can be observed,” according to the Australian Broadcasting Corporation.

Viewers in Australia will have the best view of the meteor shower on Monday, April 23 between 2 a.m. and 4 a.m. local time.

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Is There Still Time To Save The Great Barrier Reef?

New research published today in the scientific journal Global Change Biology shows that adopting best management practices can help the Great Barrier Reef in a time of climate change.

The study models a range of predicted outcomes for the Reef out to 2050 under different scenarios of future climate change and local management action.

There is significant potential for coral recovery in the coming decades,” said Dr Nick Wolff, Climate Change Scientist at The Nature Conservancy.

But under a scenario of unmitigated greenhouse gas emissions and business-as-usual management of local threats, we predict that after this recovery, average coral cover on the Reef is likely to rapidly decline by 2050.”




The research involved scientists from The Nature Conservancy; The University of Queensland; James Cook University; the UK’s Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture; and the Australian Institute of Marine Science (AIMS).

It modelled changes to corals that make up the Great Barrier Reef in the presence of a range of threats including cyclones, Crown-of-Thorns Starfish, nutrient runoff from rivers and warming events that drive mass coral bleaching.

The study provides much-needed clarity around how conventional management actions can support the resilience of the world’s largest coral reef ecosystem.

The $60M package announced recently by the Federal Government including $10.4M for Crown-of-Thorns Starfish control and $36.6M for measures to reduce river pollution is a positive step.

This could buy us some critical time,” said Dr Wolff.

The Queensland and Federal Governments have the right strategy in pursuing ambitious targets for water pollution reduction by 2025.

Further large-scale investments from both the private and public sectors should now be mobilised to expand and accelerate a range of innovative and tailored solutions to ensure targets are met.

Importantly though, the positive signs for the future shown in the research also depend strongly on whether the world meets the ambitious carbon emission targets of the Paris Climate Agreement.

The study shows that in a world of unmitigated carbon emissions, the increased frequency and severity of coral bleaching events will overwhelm the capacity of corals to recover and the benefits of good management practices could then be lost.

The study’s results also come with an important warning: not all coral reefs can be protected by good management under climate change, even if global warming can be kept below 1.5°C.

To protect the most climate sensitive species in the hardest-hit places, we would need to consider additional and unconventional management interventions beyond carbon mitigation AND intensified management.

“A new innovative R&D program to develop such interventions, including ways to boost the spread of warm-adapted corals to naturally cooler parts of the Great Barrier Reef, is included in the Australian Government’s recent $60M announcement. It’s a big step in the right direction,” concluded Dr Anthony.

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How To Throw The Perfect Punch

If you’re lucky, you’ll never have to defend yourself through physical violence. But if that time ever comes, or if you’re ever enrolled in a Fight Club against your will, would you know what to do?

You’ve seen punches thrown on TV plenty of times, but do you actually know how to throw one correctly?

We’ve asked a few experts to help us learn the proper method of punching.

Our pros will show you the right way of making a fist, the proper way of orienting your wrist, what part of the person you should hit and what you should do after the punch.

The goal is to throw an effective punch without injuring yourself in the process.

When you’re punching, the fundamental thing you should know is that your thumb needs to be on the outside of your fist, between your first and second knuckles on your index and middle finger.




If the thumb is on the inside upon hitting a hard target you WILL break your thumb,” says Aiman Farooq, a Martial Artist.

Keith Horan, also a Martial Artist recommends a linear punch, which most martial artists do, that looks like a “cross” punch in boxing.

Chris Waguespack, also a Martial Artist says that the main reason why people hurt their hands when they punch someone is “because they punch with the flats of their fingers instead of their knuckles.

When you see people shaking their hands after a punch, it is usually because they impacted, more often than not, with the wrong part of their hand. Many people think that you punch with your fist straight. The truth is, you aim to punch with the first two knuckles. In order to achieve this, you need to slightly tilt your wrist down (which actually strengthens your punch as well). By tilting your wrist down slightly, you put your knuckles in front of your fingers. You also align your wrist with your forearm, so you are less likely to bend your wrist back or down and break it.

Where should I aim?

Because you want the fight to end as quickly as possible—you’re not fighting just to fight—you want to incapacitate your opponent as quickly and efficiently as possible so you can escape. So where should you aim to do so?

Keith Horan says that, unlike what you might think, you should not punch the face. “You’ll either miss, or commonly punch wrong and hit the jaw and break your hand.

The punch for the beginner is best used on the body, towards the chest, or if you’re on the side, to the ribs.”

Pete Carvill suggests a slightly different tactic, but also advises against the head.

Warning: Although knowing the fundamentals of punching is useful, it’s also not enough to properly defend yourself without practicing. It’s definitely not for you to go out and pick fights, but you all should be smart enough to figure this out on your own.

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