Gravity: 1/6 that of earth
Air pressure: none
Temperature: extreme (253 in sun, -253 in shade)
– Why go – a place to launch to other places Orbiting at 2288 mph (3683 kph) – significant boost
Advantages: Instant communication with Earth Good place to learn how to colonize where Experts are available 24/7
Advantages: Lighter gravity means we could build bigger there
Advantages: could dome over craters to create housing
Advantages: water ice in some pole craters
One place we have talked a lot about is Mars
Gravity: Just over 1/3 (38%)
Air Pressure: .6% if Earth’s
Temperature: 70 in day (20C), -100 at night (-73C)
Why go: Most comfortable temperature-wise and gravity-wise, but pressure is still abysmal
Down-side: Thin atmosphere means not enough to support life but enough to make landings difficult.
Terraforming option – most potential for terraforming. Melting ice caps could pump CO2 into the air and thicken the atmosphere as well as warm the planet
Gravity: 13% of Earth’s
Air pressure: barely exists – mostly oxygen
Temperature: -260F -160C
This seems like a swing and a miss, but there’s something interesting under the surface of Europa
Tidal heating causes a sea of liquid water beneath the surface.
One of the best options for finding life in the solar system
Underwater habitats might be the answer.
Downside: radiation carried by Jupiter’s magnetic field would pose an issue
Gravity: 13% of Earth’s
Air pressure: 1.5x that of Earth
Temperature: -290F, -179C
Of all the places in the solar system, Titan’s air pressure is most like Earth’s You could just walk around on the surface without a suit, except for the fact that it’s so cold methane flows in rivers.
Could use the methane for fuel
But I promised something controversial, and here it is, my personal favorite option for colonizing another planet… Venus.
Gravity: 91% of Earth’s
Air Pressure: 100x that of Earth
Temperature: 872F, 467C
Now I know what you’re saying, you’re saying Joe, that only meets one of the three criteria, how can you possibly pick that as your number one?
Because those numbers are for the planet’s surface. Up in the clouds, it’s a different story.
Venus’ air pressure is insane. On the surface, it would crush you like a soda can. But about 50 kilometers up in the atmosphere, it’s about the same as here.
Which means that just like a ship can float on top of the water, we could build colonies that float on the upper atmosphere of Venus.
It would still be hot, but manageable.
And I know people will always say, but what if you fall? Or if you drop something, you’ll never get it back.
Well, I go back to the ship on the sea analogy. If you fall off the boat, you’re likely to drown. If you drop your phone over the side, you’ll never see it again. But we still have cruise ships carrying thousands of people and entire navies floating around out there.
Plus the communication time would be smaller than anywhere else.
This Friday is a day that over 400,000 people have been waiting for since March of 2016. Tesla is officially handing out the first production line Model 3s to reservation holders.
They first introduced the Model 3 16 months ago to huge fanfare, more than $130,000 people put a thousand dollars down before the car was even revealed.
And, full disclosure, I’m one of them. (hold up card) Now, I didn’t put money down before I saw it, I was adamant about that, I had to see it first. But when I saw it, I was like, “eh, why not?”
I can always get the deposit back if I change my mind.
Now I know it’ll be a while before I get mine and that’s fine, my Jetta diesel isn’t going anywhere.
And before you call me a Tesla fanboy in the comments, I cop to it, I’m a fan. And I’m going to assume most of you watching this are fans because… why else would you watch this video, unless you get off on hating things, which… I dunno, that sounds miserable way to live your life to me, but… Kay.
So this is kind-of a big deal, so I wanted to talk about what this launch event means, both to Tesla and the car industry, and throw in my own thoughts and concerns along the way.
Hold on tight because this video’s going into Ludicrous mode.
Isaac Arthur runs the YouTube channel Science and Futurism With Isaac Arthur, where he goes into incredibly deep dives on subjects like megastructures, future space colonies, aliens, and little things like farming black holes (like you do). Here we touch on a few of those topics and do a little shop talk about life as YouTubers.
If you enjoy this episode, check out Isaac’s channel at www.isaacarthur.net
Monday’s Supercapacitor vid is blowing up, but I made a huge mistake. And now I must atone.
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We live our lives through portable devices, and the race is on to create better energy storage for those devices. Could graphene supercapacitors be the holy grail?
So before I can explain how super capacitors will fix this, let’s back up and explain how batteries work in the first place.
To make it simple, batteries work by moving electrons from a negatively charged material called an anode to a positively charged material called the cathode, and the device siphons off those electrons to power the device.
For instance, nickel cadmium batteries use a nickel oxide cathode and a cadmium anode. Hence the name.
This is a chemical process called oxidation that involves an electrolyte layer sandwiched between the electrodes.
In the case of the nickel cadmium batteries, they use potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte.
But this is a one-shot deal. The chemical reaction releases the electrons, but there’s no way to re-introduce electrons into the equation.
So they’re not rechargeable. And for a world increasingly reliant on portable devices, that’s just not good enough.
Enter Lithium-Ion batteries, which were developed in the 1970’s by John B. Goodenough. That’s his real name. That’s not a joke.
Lithium ion batteries have a cathode made of lithium, duh, and an anode made of carbon, again with an electrolyte between the layers to facilitate the reaction.
The difference is lithium will absorb more electrons, so it can be recharged. But it is still a chemical reaction, so it can only reintroduce those electrons at a certain charge rate.
Super capacitors work differently. Instead of using a chemical reaction to make electrons flow, also called and electrochemical process, they use static electricity, or an electrostatic process.
Now, capacitors have been in our computers for decades, and they work by holding opposite charges between two metallic plates separated by a dielectric material.
Super capacitors, as you may have already figured out, are larger versions of capacitors that use a double layer to hold more energy. In fact they’re sometimes called double-layer capacitors.
And the cool thing about them is that since the electricity is static and not chemical, there’s far less resistance to the charge. In fact, it’s almost instantaneous.
The problem is, they don’t hold that much energy. You need a vast amount of surface area to hold enough energy to make them really useful.
So Lithium Ion batteries are very energy dense, meaning they hold a lot more stored energy, but super capacitors are very power dense, meaning the transfer the energy much faster.
If, theoretically, you could create super capacitors that could hold as much as a lithium ion battery, you’d have cell phones that could recharge in seconds and it would be good for the rest of the day.
And dare we dream it? An EV car that fully charges faster than it takes to pump gas.
There is one material that could make this dream a reality. It’s called graphene.
Graphene is basically a one-atom thick lattice of carbon atoms that has some ridiculous properties. It’s 200 times stronger than steel, but incredibly light, biodegradable, biocompatible, meaning it can be used in the human body.
They say it can be used to desalinate sea water, make space elevators, and form the basis for supercomputers, but for our purposes, it also happens to be one of the most electrically capacitive substances known to man.
It has the same energy density as lithium ion batteries with the power density of super capacitors. And since it’s only one atom thick, you can pack a ton of surface area into a small space.
With any luck, in the next 10-15 years, we’ll have super capacitor batteries that can handle energy densities at industrial scales giving us quick, plentiful electricity whenever we need it.
The first step in getting our minds outside our body is creating a conduit through which it can travel.
Elon Musk is already working on this of course, with his company Neuralink, which I covered in detail on a previous video.
Ultimately the idea is we’ll be able to integrate our minds with the internet, have instant seamless access to information, store our memories, communicate telepathically, and enter virtual worlds in our own mind.
New technologies required to get there would be advanced brain mapping technologies and developing the ability to interface with enough of the brain’s surface to be able to fully integrate it. And that would require nanobots.
Really the only viable option for doing that would be microscopic bots that would travel to the brain cortex and build themselves into a lace across the surface and the folds of the brain. Anything else would just be too invasive to be feasible.
This leads us to the second step:
The only way to ensure that your continuity of consciousness goes unbroken is for your brain itself to become computer hardware.
So in the same way that the nanobots formed a neural lace across the surface of your brain, the next step would be for them to build synthetic neurons at the cellular level, slowly over time replacing your organic circuitry with digital ones.
This whole thing should be painless because there are no sensory nerves in the brain. And the experience could produce a feeling of heightened cognition, enhanced creativity and memory retention… If everything goes right.
If things don’t go right, you could expect massive feelings of deja vu, mood swings, fogginess, hallucinations, and maybe even seizures.
Nobody ever said immortality was free, son.
In order to get here we’d need to see advancements in synthetic neurons and nanotechnology.
Virtual reality and simulated worlds are everywhere these days, and video games have become near photorealistic.
But still those experiences only involve two senses: Sight and sound.
There are some tactile devices that simulate touch in the works but still, that’s interfacing through the body.
We’d need to be able to hack all the senses, sight, sound, taste, touch, smell, and pair those sensory stimuli with the physics of the virtual world.
Want to play basketball on Pluto? You could do that.
Want to engage in all manner of sexual perversions? You will do that.
An endless number of doorways you could step into that lead to different worlds with different rules, some free, which means they’ll be filled with billboards and advertising, and some premium rooms you pay for.
Everything that we use the internet for today will take real, physical form that we can step into and interact with.
And just like professional gamers make a living in these virtual worlds, entire economies and job markets will spring up in the simulation with opportunities that we can’t even imagine right now.
The earliest versions of this VR world would probably be like recalling a memory. Later versions may feel more like stepping into a dream, ultimately one where you can interact like lucid dreaming.
This is a direction that many, many futurists believe we’re headed, a future with multiple layers of reality, both simulated and real where we can choose which reality we want to exist in. This will be an interesting time.
Now, ultimately, one way or another, our consciousness has to get inside that computer. Luckily, our brains have become computers.
So when time has its way with you and your body finally kicks, your digital brain can be removed and physically connected, permanently, to the supercomputer housing the simulation.
One of the arguments many people give for this kind of simulated immortality, that it would still be a kind of death because you’d be leaving all your loved ones behind.
But maybe not. For one thing, they would be able to visit you in this world.
They could come by your simulated house, you can take simulated trips together, when grandma dies, she really would just be going to another place. A place you can actually visit.
But she could also visit you through an avatar. A humanoid robot that an expired person could step into. One that translates all the senses of the outside world back to the person in the simulation.
Just like real people enter the virtual world, virtual people could enter the real world.
Trump’s announcement that he wants to pull out of the Paris Accord has rattled environmentalists and climate scientists, but there are some reasons to not worry too much about it.
Turns out there are a lot of reasons to believe that this action is not the threat to climate progress that we think it is. Here’s 5 of them.
1: The US shift is market-driven. There are two ways to enact change.
One is to legislate it and force people and companies to comply through laws, penalties and tax credits. The other is through a disruption in the market.
Legislated change comes slowly and incrementally over time as companies begrudgingly readjust their budget priorities to make their mandated milestones.
But adoption of new technologies follows an S-curve, where slow early adoption rates becomes exponential as the new technology proves itself, then flattening out once it dominates the market.
2: Wind and solar are cheaper than coal.
Nine of the top 10 wind energy states are traditionally red states, with Texas the reddest of them all, at the very top.
These aren’t tree-hugging lefties embracing wind energy because they want to save the polar bears, they’re doing it because it’s way cheaper and easier.
The market will embrace the solutions that are the most profitable, that’s why even amongst the fossil fuel industries, natural gas is becoming more popular than coal, because it’s much cheaper to produce.
In fact Gary Cohn, Trump’s own director of the National Economic Council – his top economic advisor – recently told reporters that coal, quote, doesn’t make sense anymore.
The US is, in fact, the second largest producer of wind energy in the world behind China, which leads me to number 3:
3: China and India taking leadership roles.
Not only do China and India have 36% of the world’s population, they are emerging economies where more and more people have access to electricity every day.
But luckily since they are still building their infrastructure, they have the ability to build it clean from scratch, instead of rebuilding it after decades of going in a different direction.
These efforts are likely to create whole economies around sustainable energy in those countries that will leak out and spread around the world.
4: Cities and states stepping up
Within hours of Trump making his announcement, the mayors of cities around the country and even some governors pledged that they would keep up their end of the Paris Accord.
This group has since called themselves the United States Climate Alliance and as of this recording includes nine states with eleven more voicing support for the Alliance, and more than 200 cities have signed on in support.
With 80% of the US population living in cities, that means the vast majority of the country’s population would still be abiding by the Paris agreement.
And now that you’re feeling all happy happy joy joy, let’s talk about the 5th reason this action doesn’t matter…
5: The Paris Accord was never strong enough to save us in the first place and we’re just as doomed as we’ve always been.
How you like that wet blanket?
Scientists say that in order to avoid the worst effects of climate change, we need to keep the temperature rise under 2 degrees by the end of the century.
But according to the UN Emissions Gap report released at the end of last year, even if all member countries follow the Paris Agreement perfectly, we’re still expected to see an increase of 2.9 to 3.4 degrees.
They said that it was an important step, but that’s all it was, just a step. It was never meant to be THE solution.
Trump’s goal is to renegotiate the US role in the Climate agreement, he felt that our current obligations are too high.
But since he made his announcement, both German Chancellor Angela Merkel and the new French President Emmanuel Macron have both stepped forward and said, no. There will be no renegotiation.
Merkel and Macron stepping up means that Europe is now taking a leadership role on the world stage, and they’ll be incentivized to trade with countries that are members of the agreement.
Could online communities create underground markets and economies that hold the key to surviving the upcoming technological disruptions? Let’s discuss.
LINKS LINKS LINKS:
The interview I reference in the video:
I was watching an interview the other day where they were talking about how apparently there are billionaires who are preparing for the kind of economic collapse I was talking about on a previous video.
Tech entrepreneurs who are plugged into the latest market news and know what’s happening with AI and are building bunkers and doing survivalist training to prepare for what’s coming.
Many are worried that as automation and artificial intelligence starts disrupting more and more industries and people start to suffer, that they’ll rise up all French Revolution style against the businessmen and tech leaders like themselves who made all that technology possible.
But I don’t think people will rise up against technology, that same technology makes it possible for them to watch their favorite TV show on their phone and post pictures of their food.
But I do think, and made the argument in my last video, that people will turn on each other.
Start blaming other groups of people for their misfortune.
But in the midst of this discussion, one of the people just kind-of blurted out something that really stuck with me. He said we need to build communities, not bunkers.
I think as trust in our institutions starts to fall apart, more than ever before we’ll need to rely on each other and our social circles for support.
I mean, you only need to look at the growth of Go Fund Me to see it starting to happen.
People who are squeezed by the economy may start to opt out of the system and join these community marketplaces.
Throw into the mix the rise of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and you have whole off-the-grid economies that function completely independent from the banking and commerce system.
A cellular society of underground communities with decentralized self-sustaining economies just doing their own thing while the world burns.
Now, if it feels like I just keep talking about this, it’s because it’s important.
Most people don’t see the big picture, they’ve just got their heads down trying to live their lives and are so caught up in the day to day that when big systemic change starts to happen around them, it looks like something else.
It looks like something conspiring against them, either the elites above them with a boot on their neck or the lower class below them trying to take what they have.
The more we can get people to understand that these changes are inevitable, that it’s a much, much bigger force at work that is completely indifferent to them and their situation, something that is beyond any human’s control, the better.
Because humanity, and humans… are two completely different things.
Just like an ant colony acts as a singular unit, an emergent super organism, that has objectives that are totally different than that of an ant.
Humanity is the emergent super organism created by the natural collective machinations of humans.
Now, the ant metaphor may sound extreme because after all, we’re humans, we’re conscious, advanced creatures, not mindless little automatons, we have free will and reason and emotions…
But there is a foundational algorithm to our decisions and behaviors that, spread out over 7 billion people, creates humanity. A completely separate entity with completely different objectives. And humanity always moves in the direction of technological progress.
Humanity is not nostalgic. Humanity just keeps moving forward. Humanity has had a lot of setbacks because people didn’t understand this and wanted to turn things back the way they used to be.
This forward progress has always and is now disrupting the world of industry and commerce, and the way that disruption affects the average person is not always positive. Or fair.
I like Tim Urban’s description of the Human Colossus, I like putting a name on it, creating a separation between our personal motivations as people and the movements of our entire species as a whole.
But the more people understand that this is the natural flow of things and adjust accordingly instead of pointing the finger at other groups of people, the less likely this whole thing is to devolve into some kind of Mad Max style apocalyptic nightmare.
There is no divide and conquer here. There is only divide and fail. Build communities. Not bunkers.
This time around I got almost 70 questions and I answer them all right here. Grab a snack. It’s gonna take a while.
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Hilbert’s Unanswered Problems:
Millennium Prize Problems: