Category: News Posts

How Did Science Changed the World? Let Me Tell You How.

We all accept that science has changed the world we live today with scientific experiments, researches, innovations, and inventions.

Science has made human life much more convenient and easier by saving labor, time and much more with new technologies.

Indeed, its series of discoveries has helped understand the nature of the world and has improved for the betterment of the society. To know more, explore the below points on how science has changed the world.




Chemistry

Chemistry is a branch of science concerned about the reactions, composition, structure, substances and much more that exists in this universe.

This branch of physical science has helped in transforming and informing the world completely. Through the help of chemistry, the world is in continual advancement in terms of technology, medicines and much more.

Among all, the world most famous chemist of all time who has changed the world completely includes Dmitri Mendeleev, Marie Curie, Linus Pauling, Antoine Lavoisier and much more with their contributions, inventions, and discoveries.

Physics

Physics is one of the oldest academic branches of knowledge today. This branch of science is concentrated on the study of matters, motion, time, space and much more, Physics is known as the knowledge of nature.

The world most famous physicist of all time who has changed the world completely includes, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein, Galileo Galilei, Marie Sklodowska Curie, Nikola Tesla, Thomas Alva Edison and much more.

Biology

The branch of science concerned about the study of living organisms, Biology is concentrated on structure, function, development/ growth, distribution, identification and so on of a living being.

It is one of the most important branches of science as it helps people understand the entire body, resources and potential threats in the environment and so on.

Biology has many branches, among all botany, zoology, microbiology, genetics, anatomy, astrobiology etc.

Among all the biologist, Louis Pasteur is one scientist who has changed the world completely with his innovation.

Louis Pasteur: Born in 1822, Louis Pasteur is one of the most famous scientist known for discovering Rabies vaccines and Anthrax vaccines.

This famous French microbiologist, biologist, and chemist, Louis Pasteur’s discoveries includes vaccination, microbial fermentation, pasteurization and much more.

Please like, share and tweet this article.
Pass it on: New Scientist

According Scientists, Earth Have Experienced A Massive Asteroid Strikes 290 Million Years Ago

Experts say the mysterious rise in strikes may have spelled doom for the dinosaurs, who were wiped out by an asteroid around 60million years ago.

It’s perhaps fair to say it was a date with destiny for the dinosaurs,” said study author Dr Thomas Gernon, from the University of Southampton.

Their downfall was somewhat inevitable given the surge of large space rocks colliding with Earth.” Space boffins at the University of Southampton examined asteroid craters on the moon to come to their finding.

Many of Earth’s ancient craters have worn away after millennia of eroding weather and tectonic plate shifts. The moon doesn’t have this problem, meaning its oldest impact holes are still in tact.

Because Earth and its neighbour have been hit by the same proportion of asteroids over time, scientists can date the moon’s craters to understand more about our own.




For the new study, experts tracked the age of the moon’s craters using images and thermal data from Nasa’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) space probe.

If a crater gives off more heat, it means it is younger because it is surrounded by larger boulders.

Over millions of years, these boulders break down into fine moon dust that comes up cold on the LRO’s heat cameras.

Scientists studied craters formed in the past billion years, and found there were fewer before 290 million years ago.

In fact, the rate of crater formation since then has been two to three times higher than in the previous 700 million years.

It’s unclear what caused the jump, but scientists think it may be linked to massive collisions taking place in the asteroid belt before 290 million years ago.

This could have created a mass of debris that has since rained down on other parts of the solar system.

The team say asteroid strikes probably played a massive role in Earth’s big extinction events, including the destruction of the dinosaurs.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: New Scientist

Saturn Hasn’t Always Had Rings

Precise measurements of Cassini’s final trajectory have now allowed scientists to make the first accurate estimate of the amount of material in the planet’s rings, weighing them based on the strength of their gravitational pull.

That estimate about 40 percent of the mass of Saturn’s moon Mimas, which itself is 2,000 times smaller than Earth’s moon tells them that the rings are relatively recent, having originated less than 100 million years ago and perhaps as recently as 10 million years ago.

Their young age puts to rest a long-running argument among planetary scientists.

Some thought that the rings formed along with the planet 4.5 billion years ago from icy debris remaining in orbit after the formation of the solar system.

Others thought the rings were very young and that Saturn had, at some point, captured an object from the Kuiper belt or a comet and gradually reduced it to orbiting rubble.

The new mass estimate is based on a measurement of how much the flight path of Cassini was deflected by the gravity of the rings when the spacecraft flew between the planet and the rings on its final set of orbits in September 2017.




Initially, however, the deflection did not match predictions based on models of the planet and rings.

Only when the team accounted for very deep flowing winds in atmosphere on Saturn, something impossible to observe from space, did the measurements make sense, allowing them to calculate the mass of the rings.

They also calculated that the surface clouds at Saturn’s equator rotate 4 percent faster than the layer 9,000 kilometers (about 6,000 miles) deep.

That deeper layer takes 9 minutes longer to rotate than do the cloud tops at the equator, which go around the planet once every 10 hours, 33 minutes.

Militzer also was able to calculate that the rocky core of the planet must be between 15 and 18 times the mass of Earth, which is similar to earlier estimates.

The team, led by Luciano Iess at the Sapienza University of Rome, Italy, reported their results today in the journal Science.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: New Scientist

Lost Cities In The Amazon Rainforest Were Home To A Million People Before Europeans Arrived

Aerial photo of archaeological site Mt05, a circular enclosure located in the Amazon rainforest containing evidence of pre-Columbian societies living there ( José Iriarte )

Up to a million people once lived in parts of the Amazon previously thought to have been uninhabited, according to new findings.

Working in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso, a team led by archaeologists at the University of Exeter unearthed hundreds of villages hidden in the depths of the rainforest.

These excavations included evidence of fortifications and mysterious earthworks called geoglyphs.

The discovery supports the theory that millions of people lived in the Amazon prior to the arrival of Europeans – who eradicated much of the indigenous population through a combination of disease and warfare.

“The idea of Amazonia as a paradise that has never been touched by humans is not true,” Dr Jonas Gregorio de Souza, an archaeologist at the University of Exeter said.




In a study published in the journal Nature Communications, Dr Gregorio de Souza and his colleagues describe their exploration of a 1800 km stretch of southern Amazonia that was occupied by pre-Columbian “earth-building cultures” until around 1500.

Researchers have traditionally assumed ancient Amazonian communities stuck close to the region’s river systems.

Early estimates for the population of the Amazon prior to the arrival of Europeans were therefore fairly conservative – around one million for the entire region.

Part of the ditch of archaeological site Mt09 in the southern Amazon (José Iriarte)

However, the new findings suggest the occupation of the Amazon was far more extensive, with settlements spreading far inland.

This gives weight to recent estimates that the population of the region was closer to ten million at the time of European arrival.

As with other parts of the Amazon and South America as a whole, the arrival of Europeans in the form of Portuguese explorers and colonisers likely led to the collapse of these once-flourishing societies.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: New Scientist

This Robot Recreates The Walk Of A 290-Million-Year-Old Creature

How did the earliest land animals move? Scientists have used a nearly 300-million-year old fossil skeleton and preserved ancient footprints to create a moving robot model of prehistoric life.

Evolutionary biologist John Nyakatura at Humboldt University in Berlin has spent years studying a 290-million-year-old fossil dug up in central Germany’s Bromacker quarry in 2000.

The four-legged plant-eater lived before the dinosaurs and fascinates scientists “because of its position on the tree of life,” said Nyakatura.

Researchers believe the creature is a “stem amniote“—an early land-dwelling animal that later evolved into modern mammals, birds and reptiles.

Scientists believe the first amphibious animals emerged on land 350 million years ago and the first amniotes emerged around 310 million years ago.

The fossil, called Orabates pabsti, is a “beautifully preserved and articulated skeleton,” said Nyakatura. What’s more, scientists have previously identified fossilized footprints left by the 3-foot-long (90 cm) creature.




Nyakatura teamed up with robotics expert Kamilo Melo at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne to develop a model of how the creature moved.

The researchers built a life-size replica of the prehistoric beast—”we carefully modeled each and every bone,” said Nyakatura—and then tested the motion in various ways that would lead its gait to match the ancient tracks, ruling out combinations that were not anatomically possible.

They repeated the exercise with a slightly-scaled up robot version , which they called OroBOT. The robot is made of motors connected by 3D-printed plastic and steel parts.

The model “helps us to test real-world dynamics, to account for gravity and friction,” said Melo. The team also compared their models to living animals, including salamanders and iguanas.

Technology such as robotics, computer modeling and CT scans are transforming paleontology, “giving us ever more compelling reconstructions of the past,” said Andrew Farke, curator at the Raymond M. Alf Museum of Paleontology in Claremont, California, who was not involved in the study.

Based on the robot model, the scientists said they think the creature had more advanced locomotion than previously thought for such an early land animal.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: New Scientist

This Robot Dog Can Recover From a Vicious Kick Using Artificial Intelligence

Researchers at ETH Zurich in Switzerland taught a four-legged robot dog a valuable life skill: how to get up again after it gets knocked down. And yes, it involved evil scientists kicking and shoving an innocent robot.

The researchers used an AI model to teach ANYmal, a doglike robot made by ANYbotics, how to right itself after being knocked onto its side or back in a variety of physical environments — as opposed to giving the robot a detailed set of instructions for only one specific environment.




But It Gets Up Again

The results were published in a paper today on Science Robotics. In simple terms, the robot tried again and again to right itself in simulation, and learned from instances when a movement didn’t end up righting it.

It then took what it learned and applied it to the real world.

It even learned how to run faster than it could before. Thanks to the neural network, ANYmal was also able to reach 1.5 metres per second or just over three mph in mere hours, according to a report.

Never Gonna Keep It Down

Are we inching closer to a future where robot guard dogs chase us down to exact revenge on us, as seen on Netflix’s Black Mirror? Sure looks like it.

So perhaps it’s time to stop kicking robot dogs — before we know it, they’ll start learning how to protect themselves.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: New Scientist

China’s First Plants to Grow on the Moon Are Already Dead

One day after China announced it grew the first plants on the Moon, the fledgling plants have been pronounced dead. Rest in peace, lunar sprouts.

On Tuesday, China’s space program said that cotton seeds had germinated in a biosphere carried to the Moon by the nation’s Chang’e-4 lunar lander.

By Wednesday, mission leads had broken the news that the plants perished as the lunar night fell over the probe’s landing site.

The Sunday arrival of the lunar night, which lasts 14 days, deprived the plants of sunlight. During a lunar night, temperatures can plummet as low as −170°C (−274°F).

Meanwhile, daytime temperatures on the Moon can reach a sweltering 127°C (260°F). These massive fluctuations are one of the main obstacles encountered by lunar explorers.

The remaining seeds and fruit fly eggs contained in the mission’s biosphere are not likely to be viable after two weeks of light deprivation and freezing temperatures.




According to China’s National Space Administration, they will decompose and remain sealed to avoid contaminating the lunar surface.

Chang’e-4 went into sleep mode on Sunday to prepare for the harsh night. The lander will rely on a radioisotope heat unit (RHU) to stay warm until sunlight returns in late January.

The mission’s rover Yutu 2, which rolled off a ramp to the lunar surface on January 3, is also dependent on an RHU during the cold spell.

Chang’e-4 is the first spacecraft ever to land on the far side of the Moon, which is commonly mistaken for the “dark” side of the Moon.

Though the far side is always angled away from Earth, it is not always angled away from the Sun. Both lunar faces experience roughly 14 days of daylight and 14 days of darkness in a regular lunar cycle.

Chang-e-4’s biosphere may have only survived for a brief week, but it still made history as the first garden planted at the surface of an alien world.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: New Scientist

Going up? Space Elevator Could Possibly Take Astronauts Into Space

A Canadian space firm is one step closer to revolutionizing space travel with a simple idea – instead of taking a rocket ship, why not take a giant elevator into space?

Thoth Technology Inc has been granted both US and UK patents for a space elevator designed to take astronauts up into the stratosphere, so they can then be propelled into space.

The company said the tower, named the ThothX Tower, will be an inflatable, freestanding structure complete with an electrical elevator and will reach 20km (12.5 miles) above the Earth.

Astronauts would ascend to 20km by electrical elevator. From the top of the tower, space planes will launch in a single stage to orbit, returning to the top of the tower for refueling and reflight,” Brendan Quine, the tower’s inventor, said in a statement.

Traditionally, regions above 50km (31 miles) in altitude can only be reached by rocket ships, where mass is expelled at a high velocity to achieve thrust in the opposite direction.

Quine said in the patent that rocketry is “extremely inefficient” and that a space elevator would take less energy.




In the patent, Quine explained that rocket ships expend more energy because they “must counter the gravitational force during the flight by carrying mass in the form of propellant and must overcome atmospheric drag”.

In contrast, by using an elevator system, “the work done is significantly less as no expulsion mass must be carried to do work against gravity, and lower ascent speeds in the lower atmosphere can virtually eliminate atmospheric drag”.

The elevator cars can also be powered electrically or inductively, eliminating the need to carry fuel, Quine wrote.

The technology offers a way to access space through reusable hardware, and will save more than 30% of the fuel of a conventional rocket, Thoth Technology said in a July statement.

Quine said when a traditional rocket ship launches from Earth, it flies vertically about 15-25km (9-15 miles) before hitting drop-off stages, when sections of the rocket drop back to Earth, usually falling into the ocean.

During the final stage when it enters space it is flying horizontally.

An elevator to space has been a longstanding idea as an alternative to rocket ships, but has always been believed as unfeasible because no known material can support itself at such a height.

Thoth’s design sidesteps this problem by building the elevator to 20km so it sits within the stratosphere rather than all the way in the geostationary orbit, where satellites fly.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: New Scienstist

How Far Away Is A Lightning?

Next time you’re stuck in a thunderstorm, try this easy way to calculate how far away you are from lightning strikes.

Just count the number of seconds that pass between a flash of lightning and the crack of thunder that follows it, then divide that number by five.

The resulting number will tell you how many miles away you are from where lightning just struck.




Five seconds, for example, indicates the lightning struck 1 mile away, and a 10-second gap means the lightning was 2 miles away.

This technique is called the “flash-to-bang” method, and it can keep you safe during rainy summer weather.

The National Weather Service recommends taking cover if the time between the lightning flash and the rumble of thunder is 30 seconds or less, which indicates the lightning is about 6 miles away or closer.

This method is based on the fact that light travels much faster than sound through the atmosphere: Light travels at 186,291 miles per second (299,800 km/s), whereas the speed of sound is only about 1,088 feet per second (332 meters per second), depending on air temperature.

For metric-system conversions, follow this method: Sound travels at about 340 m/s, so multiply the number of seconds you counted by 340, and you’ll know how many meters away lightning struck.

A three-second count, then, would place the lightning strike about 1,020 m away, or roughly 1 km.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: Popular Science

A Star System 146 Light years From Earth Is Quite Strange

A planet embedded in the protoplanetary disk of the star system HD 98800 would get this striking view of the disk and pair of stars

Planet-forming disks of material typically orbit around the equators of stars, but now scientists have discovered such rings can go dramatically awry and encircle the poles of stars instead.

The new study suggests that worlds could exist with polar orbits around pairs of stars, potentially leading to seasons extraordinarily different than Earth’s.

Stars are born within clouds of gas and dust. The gravitational pull of each star draws such material into spiraling orbits around it.

Although clumps of this cloud start off moving in random directions at random speeds, as the cloud collapses, the clumps collide and merge.

The result over time is a flattened disk called a protoplanetary disk that usually spins in the same direction as its star and surrounds the star’s equator.

The planets that emerge from such a disk also typically orbit around the star’s equator, as is the case with the worlds of our solar system.




Prior work found that nearly all young stars are initially surrounded by protoplanetary disks.

In the case of protoplanetary disks around single stars, at least a third go on to form planets, said lead study author Grant Kennedy, an astronomer at the University of Warwick in England.

However, computer simulations have previously suggested that after protoplanetary disks have formed, any extra material they collect can knock them off-kilter.

This could explain why astronomers have detected exoplanets with relatively crooked orbits around stars.

Kennedy and his colleagues focused on so-called circumbinary planets, which orbit around binary stars.

Scientists had suspected that planets around binary stars could become misaligned — instead of orbiting the stars in the same plane in which the stars orbit one another, these worlds could orbit around their poles instead.

Now, Kennedy and his colleagues have detected the first example of a misaligned circumbinary protoplanetary disk. “It’s one of those examples that nature manages to be more creative than we expect,” Kennedy said.

The scientists focused on the quadruple-star system HD 98800, located about 146 light-years from Earth. “If planets were born here, there would be four suns in the sky,” study co-author Daniel Price of Monash University in Australia said in a statement.

Please like, share and tweet this article.

Pass it on: New Scientist