Tag: answers with joe

Voyager At 40: Humanity’s Eternal Message In A Bottle

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The Voyager space probes just turned 40 and are continuing to teach us about the universe.

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LINKS LINKS LINKS

Animation of mission https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iIvgo…

Fraser Cain https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AbZ-6…

VSauce https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GDrBI…

SpaceRip https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=seXbr…

NASA Animation https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l8TA7… https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qYNIs…

Mashable: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0iAGr…

Find all the Voyager images here: https://imgur.com/gallery/hq87T

The Voyager probes launched in 1977, but the idea for their mission was conceived 13 years earlier, in 1964.

Gary Flandro, an aerospace engineer working at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, was tasked with finding ways of exploring the outer gas giants.

While proposing different possible trajectories that could come up over the next 20 years, he noticed a rare alignment of the outer planets that was going to occur in the late 1970s.

All four outer gas giants would line up in such a way that a single probe could slingshot past all four of them. This was a once every 175-year phenomena.

So he created the Planetary Grand Tour – a plan to visit all four gas giants in one shot.

Both probes lifted off in 1977, with Voyager 2 actually launching before Voyager 1, on August twentieth and September fifth, respectively.

But they were named in the order of when they would reach the planets, and Voyager 1 would be traveling faster.

Voyager 1 reached Jupiter on March 5, 1979, and Voyager 2 followed a few months later on July 9.

Together, they discovered that Jupiter has a ring system and found active volcanos on Io, the first active volcano outside planet Earth ever discovered.

They took detailed photos of the Great Red Spot and the clouds in the Jovian atmosphere, studied the cracks in the ice around Europa and took the first pictures of Ganymede.

They also took detailed measurements of Jupiter’s gravitational field and the radiation it carries.

Saturn

Voyager 1 reached Saturn in November of 1980 and Voyager two followed in August of 1981.

And this is where they parted ways.

Mission scientists were extremely interested in studying the moon Titan after Pioneer 11 photographed a dense atmosphere and organic compounds.

But in order to get a close look at Titan, it required a polar trajectory around Saturn, which means it would be slingshotted up and out of the elliptical plane. Making it impossible to continue on to the other planets.

So Voyager 1 took one for the team and made Saturn the end of its planetary run. It passed 6400 kilometers behind Titan and studied the temperature and composition of its atmosphere.

And then, after a close fly-by of Saturn, the gravity assist propelled Voyager 1 up and out of the elliptical plane faster than any other manmade object in history.

Voyager 2 had some fireworks of its own when it snapped the Pale Blue Dot photo on request from Carl Sagan.

This now iconic photo, taken as Voyager sped away from Saturn, shows Earth as a tiny point of light in the sky, or as Sagan said, a mote of dust suspended in a sunbeam.

Voyager 2 continued on to Uranus in January of 1986, and on to Neptune in January 1989.

To this day, it is the only spacecraft that has visited either of these planets. At Neptune, Voyager 2 took a 30-degree turn south and continues to provide information about the sun’s magnetic field and the solar wind.

In the north, Voyager 1’s enormous speed shot it further away from the sun than Pioneer 10, making it the furthest manmade object ever.

And in 2012, NASA announced that Voyager 1 had officially entered the heliopause, the area where the sun’s solar wind meets the cosmic rays of interstellar space.

Making it the first spacecraft to leave the solar system.

There are only 5 spacecraft so far that will eventually leave the solar system, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Pioneer 10 and 11, and the New Horizons spacecraft, and Voyager 1 is traveling faster than all of them. So unless we invent an interstellar warp drive, it will always be the furthest thing we have ever sent anywhere. Ever.

 

5 Reasons You May Be Living In A Simulation


Are you living in The Matrix? New scientific theories are suggesting that you may be.

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The Simulation Hypothesis, first published by Oxford philosopher/physicist Nick Bostrom, speculates that in the future, our descendants could create computer simulations that would be indistinguishable from reality, and that we may be living in that simulation.

This video is a very high-level overview of the Simulation Hypothesis, here are some links that go much deeper:

Listverse article on Simulation Theory: http://listverse.com/2013/12/02/10-re…

Glitch In the Matrix Subreddit: https://www.reddit.com/r/Glitch_in_th…

Samsung’s new groundbreaking SSD hard drive: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mx4Z8…

Nobel Prize Winner George Smoot’s TED Talk on Simulation Theory: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Chfoo…

Computer code in string theory – James Gates: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvMlU…

Interesting discussion on simulation theory: http://physics.stackexchange.com/ques...

Nick Bostrom’s full paper on the Simulation Argument: http://www.simulation-argument.com

Ray Kurzweil’s Craziest Predictions About The Future

Ray Kurzweil’s predictions have an 86% success rate. But what he sees in the next 50 years are mind-blowing.
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Check out Ray’s books for more about his predictions for the future:
The Age of Intelligent Machines http://amzn.to/1UMU4YM
The Singularity is Near http://amzn.to/1UMUfn1
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Ray Kurzweil is an inventor and futurist who has championed the Law of Accelerating Returns, claiming that computer technology is following an exponential path that will lead to the Singularity – a point in time when computer power reaches super intelligence and all things are possible.
He predicts the Singularity by the year 2045. But that’s just one of his predictions for the future which also involves:
Autonomous cars
Nanotechnology
Simulated worlds
Uploading consciousness Immortality
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Links: Jean-Marc Cote 1900 French World Exposition
Kurzweil’s track record
Kurzweil’s predictions
Kurzweil’s prediction timeline
George Hotz’s self-driving car hack
ColdFusionTV video on AlphaGo

5 Reasons Why You Wouldn’t Exist Without The Moon

We really take the moon for granted. But without it, we may not even exist. Here’s 5 reasons why.

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What Is Life? A Surprisingly Complex Question

What is life? Seems like a really simple question. But it’s actually more complex than you can imagine. And the search for the answer leads to other questions and thoughts that change our very perspective of ourselves.

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Check out these videos also on this topic, they’re really good:

Are viruses Alive – This Place https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phgAS…

What is life? – Kurzgesagt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOCaa…

Where Is All The Antimatter?

Every time a particle is created, a corresponding anti-particle is also created. So where is all the antimatter? Today I discuss some theories.

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LINKS LINKS LINKS

TED Ed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CtR5E…

Veritasium https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g20JZ…

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-wa…

http://www.symmetrymagazine.org/artic…

https://futurism.com/new-proposal-mat…

The Science of Addiction

Is it the drugs that get people hooked… or is it something else? The science behind addiction and how our drug laws approach it the wrong way.

Special thanks to Jac St. John at The Vegetarian Baker https://www.youtube.com/user/TheVeget…

and Sarah Hardy of Sensational Finds
https://www.youtube.com/user/Sensatio…

For their help with the intro to this video. This was shot as part of the YouTube NextUp program in August, at the YouTube space in New York. The set was constructed for a series on Great Big Story starring Philipe Cousteau: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yTvvv…

Check out the video Jac shot in the submarine for his channel!: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pb2ib…

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http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe

Follow me at all my places!

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LINKS LINKS LINKS:

Johann Hari’s TED talk on addiction: https://www.ted.com/talks/johann_hari…

Portugal https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/w…

Rat Park Comic http://www.stuartmcmillen.com/comics_…

Statistics from National Overdose Day http://www.overdoseday.com/resources/…

The science of addiction http://www.shatterproof.org/pages/sci…

Portugal’s drug policy and its results http://www.independent.co.uk/news/wor…

Kurzgesagt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ao8L-…

Nuggets (a short animated film that hauntingly depicts the process of addiction) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUngL…

Why Is Elon Musk Digging Tunnels Under Los Angeles?

So back in January of 2016, Musk was speaking at SpaceX’s Hyperloop pod competition, when he said this: “It’s a really simple and obvious idea and I wish more people would do it: build more tunnels. Tunnels are great. It’s just a hole in the ground, it’s not that hard.

But if you have tunnels in cities you would massively alleviate congestion and you could have tunnels at all different levels – you could probably have 30 layers of tunnels and completely fix the congestion problem in high-density cities.

So I strongly recommend tunnels.” But it was something he just kinda said off the cuff and nobody but the most ardent Musk-watchers paid any attention to. He claims to have built a machine that can dig tunnels for transportation 500 to 1000% more efficiently than current boring machines. And his logic is that people in cities live and work in a 3D space, in vertical buildings that can house more people. But our city transportation is on a 2D plane, meaning all these vertically packed people are now crammed into a horizontal space. By creating a 3D transportation grid, we can alleviate the congestion and drive like civilized human beings.

And his logic is that people in cities live and work in a 3D space, in vertical buildings that can house more people. But our city transportation is on a 2D plane, meaning all these vertically packed people are now crammed into a horizontal space. By creating a 3D transportation grid, we can alleviate the congestion and drive like civilized human beings.

Now, there are a couple of criticisms of this plan, one is that this idea’s been around for over a hundred years, it’s called subways. And subways are great for densely packed urban areas like New York but for cities like LA, or Dallas for that matter, where things are spread far apart, not so much.

For example, it’s a 20 or 30 minute drive just to get to my closest light rail station, at that point, I might as well just drive the rest of the way. It’s just not practical. But underground highways under strategic high-traffic arteries could make a big difference. And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

Now, there are a couple of criticisms of this plan, one is that this idea’s been around for over a hundred years, it’s called subways. And subways are great for densely packed urban areas like New York but for cities like LA, or Dallas for that matter, where things are spread far apart, not so much.

For example, it’s a 20 or 30 minute drive just to get to my closest light rail station, at that point, I might as well just drive the rest of the way. It’s just not practical. But underground highways under strategic high-traffic arteries could make a big difference. And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work.

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

But underground highways under strategic high-traffic arteries could make a big difference. And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put under the ground in terms of sewers, gas lines, telecommunication lines and so forth.

But we at least know where those are, what we don’t know is other things like pockets of gas, unstable rocks, hidden fault lines, and so forth. But… I’m sure all those things will be addressed before any large-scale tunneling begins in LA., there’s a mountain of bureaucratic red tape to get past before that happens. Which should put completion around the Fall of… never. A side benefit of this tunnel machine would be for SpaceX’s future Mars

A side benefit of this tunnel machine would be for SpaceX’s future Mars colonies, since boring underground would be the best protection against cosmic rays. Now this is of course nowhere near Elon’s first foray into transportation, I mentioned earlier his hyper loop competition, well, he just hosted another competition in January. 27 teams entered designs, of those, 3 were picked to actually run, and of those, two won awards, one for design, and the other for speed, maxing out at 90 kilometers per hour, or 55 miles per hour.

That’s a far cry from the 900 miles per hour predicted for the hyper loop, but it’s early yet, and it’s only a one-mile stretch of track, so it’s probably not getting up to top speed.