Category: Answers With Joe

NASA vs SpaceX: Who Will Get To Mars First?

Elon Musk revealed his plans for SpaceX to go to Mars in September of 2016. It involves the building of the Interplanetary Transport System and he plans to launch the first humans to Mars in 2024.

NASA’s Mars plan is far more involved with investigating the problems of long-term interplanetary flight, as they plan to build space stations in ciclunar orbit over the course of 14 years, the Deep Space Gateway and the Deep Space Transport, which will become the planetary vessel they will use for the first manned mission to Mars in 2033.

NASA’s plans revolve around the new Orion capsule, which is the first manned spacecraft NASA has created since the Space Shuttle. It is meant for deep-space travel and habitation. Meanwhile, SpaceX plans to launch the manned version of their Dragon capsule, the Dragon 2, in 2018, which will open up more opportunities for the private space company.

Elon Musk revealed his plans for SpaceX to go to Mars in September of 2016. It involves the building of the Interplanetary Transport System and he plans to launch the first humans to Mars in 2024.

NASA’s Mars plan is far more involved with investigating the problems of long-term interplanetary flight, as they plan to build space stations in ciclunar orbit over the course of 14 years, the Deep Space Gateway and the Deep Space Transport, which will become the planetary vessel they will use for the first manned mission to Mars in 2033.

NASA’s plans revolve around the new Orion capsule, which is the first manned spacecraft NASA has created since the Space Shuttle. It is meant for deep-space travel and habitation. Meanwhile, SpaceX plans to launch the manned version of their Dragon capsule, the Dragon 2, in 2018, which will open up more opportunities for the private space company.

What Is Life? A Surprisingly Complex Question

What is life? Seems like a really simple question. But it’s actually more complex than you can imagine. And the search for the answer leads to other questions and thoughts that change our very perspective of ourselves.

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Check out these videos also on this topic, they’re really good:

Are viruses Alive – This Place https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=phgAS…

What is life? – Kurzgesagt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QOCaa…

What Would Happen If You Fell Into Jupiter?

Jupiter is by far the largest planet in our solar system. But if you fell into it, would you actually hit… anything? In today’s video, we jump in and see.

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Jupiter is made of 90% hydrogen and 10 percent Helium and other chemicals. Its clouds include layers of ammonia ice, ammonium sulfide, and water vapor, but underneath the cloud layer, things get really weird.

The pressure forces the hydrogen together until it takes on some unique properties, first a supercritical state that is neither gas nor water, and the other a metallic hydrogen state where the flowing hydrogen conducts electricity that ultimately powers its massive magnetic field.

Oh, and it will kill you.

LINKS LINKS LINKS:

http://www.universetoday.com/22706/at…

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metalli…

https://www.geek.com/news/what-would-…

http://www.realclearscience.com/blog/…

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Juno_(s…

May 3rd tornado footage:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GMqww…

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sz62l…

Where Is All The Antimatter?

Every time a particle is created, a corresponding anti-particle is also created. So where is all the antimatter? Today I discuss some theories.

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LINKS LINKS LINKS

TED Ed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CtR5E…

Veritasium https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g20JZ…

http://www.npr.org/sections/thetwo-wa…

http://www.symmetrymagazine.org/artic…

https://futurism.com/new-proposal-mat…

The Science of Addiction

Is it the drugs that get people hooked… or is it something else? The science behind addiction and how our drug laws approach it the wrong way.

Special thanks to Jac St. John at The Vegetarian Baker https://www.youtube.com/user/TheVeget…

and Sarah Hardy of Sensational Finds
https://www.youtube.com/user/Sensatio…

For their help with the intro to this video. This was shot as part of the YouTube NextUp program in August, at the YouTube space in New York. The set was constructed for a series on Great Big Story starring Philipe Cousteau: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yTvvv…

Check out the video Jac shot in the submarine for his channel!: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pb2ib…

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http://www.patreon.com/answerswithjoe

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LINKS LINKS LINKS:

Johann Hari’s TED talk on addiction: https://www.ted.com/talks/johann_hari…

Portugal https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/w…

Rat Park Comic http://www.stuartmcmillen.com/comics_…

Statistics from National Overdose Day http://www.overdoseday.com/resources/…

The science of addiction http://www.shatterproof.org/pages/sci…

Portugal’s drug policy and its results http://www.independent.co.uk/news/wor…

Kurzgesagt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ao8L-…

Nuggets (a short animated film that hauntingly depicts the process of addiction) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HUngL…

Moore’s Law Is Ending – Here’s 7 Technologies That Could Bring It Back To Life

Gordon E. Moore was one of the co-founders of Intel and first proposed was came to be known as Moore’s Law, which predicted that computer power would double every 2 years.

For nearly 50 years, the industry kept pace with this prediction, but in recent years there’s been a slowdown. 2 main reasons are heat and the quantum tunneling effect that occurs at the atomic scales.

Some of the technologies that have been theorized to break through this barrier include:

Graphene processors. Graphene carries electricity far better than traditional silicon processors, but is currently very expensive to produce.

Three Dimensional Chips. Some manufacturers are experimenting with 3-D chips that combine processing and memory in one place to improve speed.

Molecular transistors. Transistors that use a single molecule to transfer electricity.

Photon transistors. These take electrons out of the process entirely and replaces them with laser beams.

Quantum computers. These long-hyped machines could perform multiple calculations at once by using the superposition of quantum particles to process information.

Protein computers. These use folding proteins to make calculations.

And finally, DNA computers. DNA is the perfect data storage device, allowing scientists to store 700 terabytes of information in only one gram. But it can also be used in logic gates and are being tested in a processing capacity.

Links:

https://phys.org/news/2016-05-graphene-based-transistor-clock-processors.html

Computerphile on the physics of computer chips

Computerphile on the end of Moore’s Law:

http://www.livescience.com/52207-faster-3d-computer-chip.html

First Functional Molecular Transistor Comes Alive

https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2015/07/scientists-build-single-molecule-transistor-gated-with-individual-atoms/

http://news.mit.edu/2013/computing-with-light-0704

Michio Kaku on Moore’s Law

https://www.engadget.com/2016/02/26/scientists-built-a-book-sized-protein-powered-biocomputer/

Harvard cracks DNA storage, crams 700 terabytes of data into a single gram

http://computer.howstuffworks.com/dna-computer.htm

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moore%27s_law

https://www.pcper.com/news/Storage/IDF-2016-Intel-Demo-Optane-3D-XPoint-Announces-Optane-Testbed-Enterprise-Customers

The Mystery of Gravity

Of all the fundamental forces, Gravity is the most fundamental to our experience on this planet. We’ve always known that what goes up must come down, though we never really knew why.

Aristotle believed that objects fell toward Earth because they wanted to move toward their “natural state”. Because Aristotle was wrong about everything.

Galileo proved that objects fall at the same rate regardless of how heavy they are, and that they fall at a constant acceleration of 9.8 meters per second squared.

Sir Isaac Newton was the first to grasp that gravity was an attractive force between objects with mass and was able to devise the equations around gravity that we still use today.

Then Einstein redefined our understanding of gravity as a curvature in space-time caused by objects with mass.

Now, a common misconception is that gravity doesn’t work in outer space because we always see astronauts in zero gravity.

And if you’re anything like me, you grew up seeing this and just thought that the further you get away from the earth’s surface, the less gravity affects you, and that’s why astronauts get to float around all cool up there like that.

But that’s not how it works. That’s not how any of this works.

The reason these astronauts are floating is because they’re in orbit around the planet. And orbit is basically a state of always falling.

So being on the ISS is basically like constantly being in an elevator that’s plummeting toward the ground.

Some people, myself included, originally mistook the higgs boson as the force carrier for gravity because when you look at the standard model of particle physics, the other three fundamental forces all have force carrier particles called bosons.

Specifically, photons, gluons, and w and z bosons.

But the higgs boson is the force carrier of the higgs mechanism, which is a totally different thing. So I was wrong. I know, go figure.

But because all the other forces have force carrier particles, it was assumed that gravity would as well, which scientists called the graviton.

The graviton, if it exists, would be massless, because it works over unlimited distances, and would be a spin-2 boson, also known as a tensor boson.

It’s been theorized a massless spin-2 field would give rise to a force indistinguishable from gravitation, because a massless spin-2 field would couple to the stress–energy tensor in the same way that gravitational interactions do.

Gravitons also pose a problem with a mathematical issue called renormalization.

These issues have spurred some researchers to look for answers outside of quantum field theory like in string theory.

Some have tried to merge the supersymmetry found in string theory with general relativity in what they call Supergravity.

In the 80’s a theory called Modified Newtonian Dynamics, or MOND was introduced which tries to explain the movement of stars in galaxies without the use of Dark Matter.

Later, in 2004, MOND got modified further to create tensor-vector-scalar gravity which relies on a relativistic lagrangian density that maintains the law of conservation of energy.

Another popular idea is Erik Verlinde’s entropic gravity, which argues that gravity is an emergent force that arises from entropy itself and not a fundamental force at all.

And who can forget the chameleon particle theory, which has a variable effective mass that is an increasing function of the ambient energy density, meaning the particle’s mass changes to cause different effects on the particles around it.

So strangely, the first force we were aware of has become the last to be fully understood. And the one that, if we do ever fully understand it, would unlock the secrets of the universe.

LINKS:

Stress-Energy tensor

Newton’s Cannonball

Vertasium

VSauce

Gravity 3d animation

Higgs field animation

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gravity#Alternative_theories

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modified_Newtonian_dynamics

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Entropic_gravity

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chameleon_particle

In Defense Of Columbus Day… Sort Of

Today is Columbus Day in the United States, but with more people understanding the truth, that Christopher Columbus was a wretched human being, I try to find something positive to take out of the day.

Watch the video above or listen to it in audio form in the podcast player. If you aren’t subscribed to my YouTube channel or my podcast, click one of the links to the side to get the rest of my videos and podcasts when I release them.

Thanks for watching!

 

Why Is Elon Musk Digging Tunnels Under Los Angeles?

So back in January of 2016, Musk was speaking at SpaceX’s Hyperloop pod competition, when he said this: “It’s a really simple and obvious idea and I wish more people would do it: build more tunnels. Tunnels are great. It’s just a hole in the ground, it’s not that hard.

But if you have tunnels in cities you would massively alleviate congestion and you could have tunnels at all different levels – you could probably have 30 layers of tunnels and completely fix the congestion problem in high-density cities.

So I strongly recommend tunnels.” But it was something he just kinda said off the cuff and nobody but the most ardent Musk-watchers paid any attention to. He claims to have built a machine that can dig tunnels for transportation 500 to 1000% more efficiently than current boring machines. And his logic is that people in cities live and work in a 3D space, in vertical buildings that can house more people. But our city transportation is on a 2D plane, meaning all these vertically packed people are now crammed into a horizontal space. By creating a 3D transportation grid, we can alleviate the congestion and drive like civilized human beings.

And his logic is that people in cities live and work in a 3D space, in vertical buildings that can house more people. But our city transportation is on a 2D plane, meaning all these vertically packed people are now crammed into a horizontal space. By creating a 3D transportation grid, we can alleviate the congestion and drive like civilized human beings.

Now, there are a couple of criticisms of this plan, one is that this idea’s been around for over a hundred years, it’s called subways. And subways are great for densely packed urban areas like New York but for cities like LA, or Dallas for that matter, where things are spread far apart, not so much.

For example, it’s a 20 or 30 minute drive just to get to my closest light rail station, at that point, I might as well just drive the rest of the way. It’s just not practical. But underground highways under strategic high-traffic arteries could make a big difference. And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

Now, there are a couple of criticisms of this plan, one is that this idea’s been around for over a hundred years, it’s called subways. And subways are great for densely packed urban areas like New York but for cities like LA, or Dallas for that matter, where things are spread far apart, not so much.

For example, it’s a 20 or 30 minute drive just to get to my closest light rail station, at that point, I might as well just drive the rest of the way. It’s just not practical. But underground highways under strategic high-traffic arteries could make a big difference. And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work.

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

But underground highways under strategic high-traffic arteries could make a big difference. And reducing the time cars are idling in traffic could cut down on pollution as well. The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put

The other criticism is that building tunnels is not nearly as easy as it sounds, even with a giant high-tech earthworm machine doing all the work. Obviously in urban areas there’s all kinds of things we’ve put under the ground in terms of sewers, gas lines, telecommunication lines and so forth.

But we at least know where those are, what we don’t know is other things like pockets of gas, unstable rocks, hidden fault lines, and so forth. But… I’m sure all those things will be addressed before any large-scale tunneling begins in LA., there’s a mountain of bureaucratic red tape to get past before that happens. Which should put completion around the Fall of… never. A side benefit of this tunnel machine would be for SpaceX’s future Mars

A side benefit of this tunnel machine would be for SpaceX’s future Mars colonies, since boring underground would be the best protection against cosmic rays. Now this is of course nowhere near Elon’s first foray into transportation, I mentioned earlier his hyper loop competition, well, he just hosted another competition in January. 27 teams entered designs, of those, 3 were picked to actually run, and of those, two won awards, one for design, and the other for speed, maxing out at 90 kilometers per hour, or 55 miles per hour.

That’s a far cry from the 900 miles per hour predicted for the hyper loop, but it’s early yet, and it’s only a one-mile stretch of track, so it’s probably not getting up to top speed.