Tag: physics

Has The Age Of Quantum Computing Arrived?

Ever since Charles Babbage’s conceptual, unrealised Analytical Engine in the 1830s, computer science has been trying very hard to race ahead of its time.

Particularly over the last 75 years, there have been many astounding developments – the first electronic programmable computer, the first integrated circuit computer, the first microprocessor.

But the next anticipated step may be the most revolutionary of all.

Quantum computing is the technology that many scientists, entrepreneurs and big businesses expect to provide a, well, quantum leap into the future.

If you’ve never heard of it there’s a helpful video doing the social media rounds that’s got a couple of million hits on YouTube.

It features the Canadian prime minister, Justin Trudeau, detailing exactly what quantum computing means.




Trudeau was on a recent visit to the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario, one of the world’s leading centres for the study of the field. D

During a press conference there, a reporter asked him, half-jokingly, to explain quantum computing.

Quantum mechanics is a conceptually counterintuitive area of science that has baffled some of the finest minds – as Albert Einstein said “God does not play dice with the universe” – so it’s not something you expect to hear politicians holding forth on.

Throw it into the context of computing and let’s just say you could easily make Zac Goldsmith look like an expert on Bollywood.

But Trudeau rose to the challenge and gave what many science observers thought was a textbook example of how to explain a complex idea in a simple way.

The concept of quantum computing is relatively new, dating back to ideas put forward in the early 1980s by the late Richard Feynman, the brilliant American theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate.

He conceptualised the possible improvements in speed that might be achieved with a quantum computer. But theoretical physics, while a necessary first step, leaves the real brainwork to practical application.

With normal computers, or classical computers as they’re now called, there are only two options – on and off – for processing information.

A computer “bit”, the smallest unit into which all information is broken down, is either a “1” or a “0”.

And the computational power of a normal computer is dependent on the number of binary transistors – tiny power switches – that are contained within its microprocessor.

Back in 1971 the first Intel processor was made up of 2,300 transistors. Intel now produce microprocessors with more than 5bn transistors. However, they’re still limited by their simple binary options.

But as Trudeau explained, with quantum computers the bits, or “qubits” as they are known, afford far more options owing to the uncertainty of their physical state.

In the mysterious subatomic realm of quantum physics, particles can act like waves, so that they can be particle or wave or particle and wave.

This is what’s known in quantum mechanics as superposition. As a result of superposition a qubit can be a 0 or 1 or 0 and 1. That means it can perform two equations at the same time.

Two qubits can perform four equations. And three qubits can perform eight, and so on in an exponential expansion. That leads to some inconceivably large numbers, not to mention some mind-boggling working concepts.

At the moment those concepts are closest to entering reality in an unfashionable suburb in the south-west corner of Trudeau’s homeland.

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Black Holes Destroy Dark Matter And Emit Gamma Rays

Black holes can cause dark matter to annihilate in their vicinity by concentrating the dark matter and enhancing the collision rate between dark matter particles.

The best observational candidates are supermassive black holes, such as the 4 million solar mass black hole found at the center of our Milky Way galaxy.

Some galaxies have much larger supermassive black holes, reaching as high as several billion or even tens of billions of solar masses. Most massive galaxies appear to have supermassive black holes in their centers.

We infer the existence of supermassive black holes through their effect on nearby stellar or molecular cloud orbits.




And we more directly detect supermassive black holes (SMBHs) by the radiation emitted from ordinary matter that is near the black hole (BH), but has not yet fallen into the BH’s event horizon.

Such matter will often form a hot accretion disk around the SMBH.

The disk or other infalling matter can be heated to millions of degrees by the strong gravitational potential of the BH as the kinetic energy of infall is converted to thermal energy by frictional processes.

Ordinary matter (OM) heated to such high temperatures will give off X-rays.

Now if OM is being pulled into a SMBH, so is dark matter, which pervades every galaxy. Dark matter (DM) responds to the same gravitational potential from the SMBH.

The difference is that OM is collisional since it easily interacts with other OM via the electromagnetic force, whereas DM is generally collisionless, since it does not interact via electromagnetism.

Nevertheless DM – DM collisions can occur, rarely, via a ‘direct hit’ (as if two bullets hit each other in mid-air) and this leads to annihilation.

Two DM particles meet directly and their entire energy content, from their rest mass as well as their kinetic energy of motion, is converted into other particles.

The cross-section strength is not known, but it must be small due to observational limits, yet is expected to be non-zero. The most likely candidates for decay products are expected to be photons, neutrinos, and electrons.

The leading candidate for DM is some sort of weakly interacting massive particle with a mass of perhaps 5 to 300 GeV; this is the range where DM searches from satellites and on Earth are focused.

So if two DM particles mutually annihilate, there is of order 10 GeV to 600 GeV of available rest mass energy to produce highly energetic gamma rays.

The likelihood of a direct hit is proportional to the square of the density of the DM.

A SMBH’s gravitational potential acts as a concentrator for DM, allowing the density to be high enough that there could be a significant number of annihilation events, resulting in a detectable flux of escaping photons reaching Earth.

Relativistic effects work to further increase the annihilation rate. And it is possible that the annihilation signal could scale as M³ (mass of the SMBH cubed), and thus the most massive SMBHs would be very strong gamma ray emitters.

These would be highly energetic gamma rays with well over 1 GeV of energy.

The search for gamma rays from annihilating DM around SMBHs is already underway. There is in fact a possible detection by the Fermi telescope at 130 GeV in our Milky Way galaxy, from the direction of the Sagittarius A* SMBH.

Future more sensitive gamma ray surveys may lead to many detections, helping us to better understand both dark matter and black holes.

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Astrophysics: High Energy Galactic Particle Accelerator Located

The highest-energy cosmic rays that bombard Earth have been traced to their source — rare galaxies with supermassive black holes at their center.

A collaboration of more than 370 scientists working with the Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina tracked the rays by pointing particle detectors skywards and tracing high-energy hits back to the objects that were most likely to have produced them.

These high-energy particles hit Earth’s atmosphere with an energy that is 100 million times higher than anything produced by man-made particle accelerators.




Unlike lower-energy cosmic rays, which are bent and deflected by magnetic fields in the Universe, high-energy rays whizz through space in a nearly straight line, making it possible to trace them back to their source.

Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays were first detected in 1962. But whatever made these particles was so extreme that it didn’t fall within any physics known at that time.

Since then, scientists have been determined to solve the mystery of where these super-energetic particles come from.

High-energy cosmic rays are extremely rare, with less than one particle hitting a square kilometer of Earth every hundred years. That has made them hard to study.

And although they pass in a nearly straight line through space, it has not been known exactly how much they are deflected by galactic magnetic fields.

Source revealed

The vast Pierre Auger Observatory has 1,600 ground-based particle detectors over an area of 3,000 square kilometers. Even so, the Auger team can spot these cosmic rays at a rate of only two per month.

The team measured cosmic rays from January 2004 until May 2006, and to ensure a rigorous check on their data, they then looked at a further year’s worth of data.

At the heart of AGN is a supermassive black hole, which churns up enough energy to spit out protons with staggering energies of more than 100 x 10 18 eV.

AGN are very violent situations in space,” says Alan Watson of the University of Leeds, UK, a spokesman for the Pierre Auger Collaboration.

Matching the direction of the rays to these violent galaxies is enough to convince Watson, and the Auger team, that they have found the source of the highest-energy cosmic rays.

But for some, the statistics aren’t quite good enough to be so certain.

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Most Precise Measurement Of The Proton’s Mass

What is the weight of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan have made an important step toward better understanding this fundamental constant.

By means of precision measurements on a single proton, they were able to improve the precision by a factor of three and also correct the existing value.

To determine the mass of a single proton more accurately, the group of physicists from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg and RIKEN in Japan performed an important high-precision measurement.

In a greatly advanced Penning trap system, designed by Sven Sturm and Klaus Blaum from MPI-K, using ultra-sensitive single particle detectors that were partly developed by RIKEN’s Ulmer Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory.




The proton is the nucleus of the hydrogen atom and one of the basic building blocks of all other atomic nuclei. Therefore, the proton’s mass is an important parameter in atomic physics: it is one of the factors that affect how the electrons move around the atomic nucleus.

This is reflected in the spectra, i.e., the light colours (wavelengths) that atoms can absorb and emit again. By comparing these wavelengths with theoretical predictions, it is possible to test fundamental physical theories.

Further, precise comparisons of the masses of the proton and the antiproton may help in the search for the crucial difference – besides the reversed sign of the charge – between matter and antimatter.

Penning traps are well-proven as suitable “scales” for ions. In such a trap, it is possible to confine, nearly indefinitely, single charged particles such as a proton, for example, by means of electric and magnetic fields.

Inside the trap, the trapped particle performs a characteristic periodic motion at a certain oscillation frequency. This frequency can be measured and the mass of the particle calculated from it.

In order to reach the targeted high precision, an elaborate measurement technique was required.

The carbon isotope 12C with a mass of 12 atomic mass units is defined as the mass standard for atoms. “We directly used it for comparison,” says Sven Sturm.

First we stored each one proton and one carbon ion (12C6+) in separate compartments of our Penning trap apparatus, then transported each of the two ions into the central measurement compartment and measured its motion.

From the ratio of the two measured values the group obtained the proton’s mass directly in atomic units. The measurement compartment was equipped with specifically developed purpose-built electronics.

Andreas Mooser of RIKEN’s Fundamental Symmetries Laboratory explains its function: “It allowed us to measure the proton under identical conditions as the carbon ion despite its about 12-fold lower mass and 6-fold smaller charge.”

The resulting mass of the proton, determined to be 1.007276466583(15)(29) atomic mass units, is three times more precise than the presently accepted value.

The numbers in parentheses refer to the statistical and systematic uncertainties, respectively.

Intriguingly, the new value is significantly smaller than the current standard value.

Measurements by other authors yielded discrepancies with respect to the mass of the tritium atom, the heaviest hydrogen isotope (T = 3H), and the mass of light helium (3He) compared to the “semiheavy” hydrogen molecule HD (D = 2H, deuterium, heavy hydrogen).

Our result contributes to solving this puzzle, since it corrects the proton’s mass in the proper direction,” says Klaus Blaum.

Florian Köhler-Langes of MPIK explains how the researchers intend to further improve the precision of their measurement: “In the future, we will store a third ion in our trap tower. By simultaneously measuring the motion of this reference ion, we will be able to eliminate the uncertainty originating from fluctuations of the magnetic field.”

The work was published in Physical Review Letters.

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It Was A Universe-Shaking Announcement. But What Is A Neutron Star Anyway?

Last October 16, 2017, astronomers made a universe-shaking announcement about the detection of reverberations from the collision of two neutron stars.

It is another triumph for LIGO, short for Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory, the instrument that has opened a new window into the universe by detecting shakings in the fabric of space-time known as gravitational waves.

Previously, LIGO, had detected three mergers of black holes. Scientists who helped create LIGO also just won the Nobel Prize in Physics.

The new discovery sheds light on a smaller, different type of rumbling, one that can be both seen and heard. Here are answers to some questions you might have about the discovery.




What’s a neutron star?

Let’s back up a step: what’s a neutron? An atom consists of a heavy center known as the nucleus, surrounded by a cloud of tiny negatively charged electrons.

In the nucleus are two types of particles: positively charged protons and electrically neutral neutrons.

A neutron star, as its name suggests, is a star that consists almost entirely of neutrons.

Here’s how that neutron star formed:

For most of their existence, stars emit light through fusion the merging of hydrogen atoms into helium, which releases gargantuan amounts of energy.

When a large star probably at least six times the mass of the sun exhausts its hydrogen, it begins to collapse.

The collapse accelerates so quickly that it sets off cataclysmic explosion known as a supernova. What’s left over is an extremely dense cinder that is only about six miles wide, but packs in more mass than the sun.

The pressure is so great that electrons and protons are squeezed together into neutrons.

A single thimbleful of a neutron star weighs as much as several million elephants.

How does a neutron star differ from a black hole?

A neutron star is a stellar cinder that stopped collapsing.

But when even larger stars explode, the remaining core is so dense that the core continues collapsing until it turns into a black hole. Here’s our guide to black holes.

What happens when two neutron stars collide?

In the case of the discovery that was detailed last October 16, 2017, the merging objects were probably survivors of massive stars that had been orbiting each other and had each puffed up and then died in spectacular supernova explosions.

Making reasonable assumptions about their spins, the astronomers calculated that these neutron stars were about 1.1 and 1.6 times as massive as the sun, smack in the known range of neutron stars.

As they approached each other, swirling a thousand times a second, tidal forces bulged their surfaces outward. Quite a bit of the material was ejected and formed a fat doughnut around the merging stars.

At the moment they touched each other, a shock wave squeezed more material out of their polar regions, but the doughnut and extreme magnetic fields confined the material into an ultra-high-speed jet emitting a blitzkrieg of radiation.

That blast set off the gravitational waves detected by LIGO, as well as the light show spotted by a variety of telescopes.

What are gravitational waves?

Watch this video we made in 2016 when LIGO first detected them to learn more about these ripples in space-time that confirmed key aspects of Albert Einstein’s theories.

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Dwarf Galaxies Loom Large in Quest for Dark Matter

In its inaugural year of observations, the Dark Energy Survey has already turned up at least eight objects that look to be new satellite dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way.

These miniature galaxies — the first discovered in a decade — shine with a mere billionth of our galaxy’s brightness and each contain a million times less mass.

Astronomers believe the vast majority of material in dwarf galaxies is dark matter, a mysterious substance composing 80 percent of all matter in the universe.

Dwarf galaxies have therefore emerged as prime targets for gathering potential clues about dark matter’s composition.




Some theories suggest dark matter particles and antiparticles should produce telltale gamma rays when they collide with each other.

Accordingly, scientists used the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope to study the newfound dwarf galaxy candidates, as well as a group of dwarf galaxies already on the books.

The telescope detected no significant gamma-ray signals from either set of dwarf galaxies, however, leaving scientists still in the hunt for dark matter.

On May 15, 2015, The Kavli Foundation spoke with three astrophysicists about the continuing search for dark matter data in space and how dwarf galaxies can help us understand the evolution of our universe.

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Neutron Star Smash-Up Produces Gravitational Waves And Light In Unprecedented Stellar Show​

The 2015 detection of gravitational waves – ripples in the very fabric of space and time – was one of the biggest scientific breakthroughs in a century.

But because it was caused by two black holes merging, the event was all but invisible, detectable indirectly via the LIGO facility.

Now a team of scientists has announced the fifth detection of gravitational waves, but there’s a groundbreaking difference this time around.

The ripples were caused by the collision of two neutron stars, meaning the event was accompanied by light, radio, and other electromagnetic signals for the first time.

First predicted by Albert Einstein over 100 years ago, gravitational waves are caused by cosmic cataclysms like the collision of two black holes, but because of the immense distance.




By the time they reach us here on Earth the distortions are occurring on the subatomic scale.

To observe waves that tiny, LIGO beams lasers down a 4-km (2.5-mi) long tunnel and measures how gravitational waves might warp the beam as they wash over our local corner of spacetime.

That delicate process is effective at confirming the phenomenon, but still somewhat indirect.

This is the first time that the collision of two neutron stars has been detected, and this is the closest and most precisely located gravitational wave signal we’ve received,” says Susan Scott, the Leader of the General Relativity Theory and Data Analysis Group at Australian National University (ANU), which played a key role in the observation.

It is also the loudest gravitational wave signal we’ve detected.

The collision occurred in a galaxy called NGC 4993, which lies about 130 million light-years away – that might sound far, but it’s much closer than previous observations, which occurred at distances of billions of light-years.

As well as producing gravitational waves, the neutron stars’ collision sent a host of electromagnetic signals sweeping across the universe, including a short gamma ray burst, X-rays, light and radio waves.

These were picked up by observatories all over the world, helping pinpoint the source.

ANU was among those, using SkyMapper and the Siding Spring Observatory in New South Wales, Australia, to observe the brightness and color of the light signals given off.

Along with learning more about gravitational waves, the discovery can teach astronomers about neutron stars.

Created when larger stars collapse, neutron stars are relatively tiny – only about 10 km (6.2 mi) wide – and incredibly dense, with very strong magnetic fields. Other than that, not a whole lot is known about them.

With this discovery we have the opportunity to learn so much more about neutron stars, which have been quite a mystery to us,” says Scott.

Unlike black holes, neutron star collisions emit other signals such as gamma rays, light and radio waves so astronomers around the world were able to observe the event through telescopes. This is an amazing time to be a scientist.

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The Quantum Computer That Could Spell The End Of Encryption

The researchers from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Austria’s University of Innsbruck call it “the beginning of the end for encryption schemes“.

Most encryption used today uses integer factorisation, or “the factoring problem“, and its security comes from the difficulty of factoring large numbers.

For example, finding the prime factors, or multipliers, for the number 15 is fairly easy as it’s a small number.

However, a larger number such as 91, may take some pen and paper.

An even larger number, say with 232 digits, has taken scientists two years to factor, using hundreds of classical computers operating in parallel.

In encryption, two different, but intimately related numbers, are used for the encryption and decryption, making it easy to calculate but hard to reverse.




However, a quantum computer is expected to outperform traditional computers and crack this problem by using hundreds of atoms, essentially in parallel, to quickly factor huge numbers because data is encoded in the ‘spin’ of individual electrons.

Unlike standard computers, quantum bits, or qubits can exist in multiple states at once rather than the binary 1 or 0 of conventional bits.

This means they can perform multiple calculations in parallel and hold far more information than normal bits.

For example, a computer with just 1,000 qubits could easily crack modern encryption keys while smartphone games like Angry Birds typically use 40,000 conventional bits to run.

It typically takes about 12 qubits to factor the number 15, but researchers at MIT and the University of Innsbruck in Austria have found a way to pare that down to five qubits, each represented by a single atom.

This has been designed and built by a quantum computer from five atoms in an ion trap. The computer uses laser pulses to carry out algorithms on each atom, to correctly factor the number 15.

The approach thus provides the potential for designing a powerful quantum computer, but with fewer resources,” said the research paper.

We factor the number 15 by effectively employing and controlling seven qubits and four ‘cache qubits’ and by implementing generalised arithmetic operations, known as modular multipliers.

The system is designed in a way that more atoms and lasers can be added to build a bigger and faster quantum computer, able to factor much larger numbers.

The scientists said the results represent the first scalable implementation of Shor’s algorithm, a quantum algorithm named after mathematician Peter Shor in 1994 to solve the factorisation problem.

We show that Shor’s algorithm, the most complex quantum algorithm known to date, is realisable in a way where, yes, all you have to do is go in the lab, apply more technology, and you should be able to make a bigger quantum computer,” said Isaac Chuang, professor of physics and professor of electrical engineering and computer science at MIT.

It might still cost an enormous amount of money to build – you won’t be building a quantum computer and putting it on your desktop anytime soon – but now it’s much more an engineering effort, and not a basic physics question.

The researchers claimed the ion-trap quantum computer returns the correct factors with a confidence level exceeding 99 per cent.

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Gravitational Waves Just Led Us To The Incredible Origin Of Gold In The Universe

The Nobel Prize–winning Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) observatory has already changed the world of astronomy.

When the scientists in the LIGO collaboration announced the first detection of gravitational waves in 2016, it meant they’d discovered a new way to observe the universe.

For the first time, scientists could “listen” to ripples in spacetime created by the collision of massive objects like black holes.

But that was just the beginning. The dream, all along, was to combine gravitational wave detections with observations from more traditional telescopes.

On Monday, a team of thousands of LIGO scientists around the globe published an incredible finding spread throughout several papers in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Not only did these scientists detect, for the first time, the gravitational waves produced from two colliding neutron stars, but they were able to pinpoint their location in the sky and witness the event with optical and electromagnetic telescopes.




The gravitational waves tell physicists how large and how far away the objects are, and allow scientists to recreate the moments before they collided.

Then the observations in optical light and electromagnetic waves fill in the blanks that gravitational waves can’t answer.

They help astronomers nail down exactly what the objects were made out of, and which elements their collisions produced.

In this case, the scientists were able to conclude that the resulting explosion from a neutron star merger produces heavy elements like gold, platinum, and uranium.

On August 17 at 8:41 am, LIGO detected gravitational waves — literal distortions in space and time — passing through Earth.

LIGO is a pair of L-shaped observatories in Washington state and Louisiana that can detect when these waves temporarily squish and stretch the fabric of spacetime around us.

In the past two years, LIGO had detected gravitational waves generated by black holes that had crashed into one another.

When LIGO detects gravitational waves, it automatically sends out alerts to hundreds of scientists across the world. Brown was one of them.

We got on the phone very quickly, and we realized this was a very loud gravitational wave signal. It blew our socks off,” he says.

On the day of the gravitational wave detection, the scientists immediately got another clue that something big was happening.

Two seconds after LIGO detected the gravitational waves, Fermi, a NASA satellite, detected a gamma-ray burst, one of the most powerful explosions of energy we know of in the universe.

It had long been theorized that neutron star mergers could create gamma-ray bursts. This couldn’t be a coincidence.

But light from the neutron star merger and subsequent explosion would soon dim. And so the LIGO collaboration scientists were suddenly under intense pressure to move quickly.

The sooner you get telescopes on this thing, the more information you get,” Brown says.

Studying that light, and how it changes, would teach scientists a huge amount about neutron stars and how their collisions transform matter.

This discovery is so exciting because it means we’re truly in a new age of astronomy.

It means scientists can study celestial objects not just in terms of the light or radiation they emit they can also combine those observations with data from gravitational waves.

It means scientists have data on the entirety of this collision. They have data on how the two neutron stars danced around each other, they have data on the moment of impact, and they have extensive data on the aftermath.

Scientists expect to observe more black hole mergers, more neutron star mergers. But stranger, cooler observations may come through as well.

If LIGO and VIRGO continue to be upgraded, it’s possible they could detect gravitational waves still rippling away from the Big Bang.

Or, more excitingly, they could detect sources of gravitational waves that have never been predicted or observed.

I was a little sad I was not alive for the first moon landing,” Thomas Corbitt, a physicist and LIGO collaborator at Louisiana State University, says.

But when you see things like this, which are a testament to what people can do when they work together, it really is inspiring, and it teaches us about the universe.

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What Came Before The Big Bang?

It is difficult enough to imagine a time, roughly 13.7 billion years ago, when the entire universe existed as a singularity.

According to the big bang theory, one of the main contenders vying to explain how the universe came to be, all the matter in the cosmos – all of space itself – existed in a form smaller than a subatomic particle.

Once you think about that, an even more difficult question arises: What existed just before the big bang occurred?

The question itself predates modern cosmology by at least 1,600 years. Fourth-century theologian St. Augustine wrestled with the nature of God before the creation of the universe.




His answer? Time was part of God’s creation, and there simply was no “before” that a deity could call home.

Armed with the best physics of the 20th century, Albert Einstein came to very similar conclusions with his theory of relativity.

Just consider the effect of mass on time. A planet’s hefty mass warps time — making time run a tiny bit slower for a human on Earth’s surface than a satellite in orbit.

The difference is too small to notice, but time even runs more slowly for someone standing next to a large boulder than it does for a person standing alone in a field.

The pre-big bang singularity possessed all the mass in the universe, effectively bringing time to a standstill.

Following this line of logic, the title of this article is fundamentally flawed.

According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, time only came into being as that primordial singularity expanded toward its current size and shape.

Case closed? Far from it. This is one cosmological quandary that won’t stay dead.

In the decades following Einstein’s death, the advent of quantum physics and a host of new theories resurrected questions about the pre-big bang universe. Keep reading to learn about some of them.

Here’s a thought: What if our universe is but the offspring of another, older universe? Some astrophysicists speculate that this story is written in the relic radiation left over from the big bang: the cosmic microwave background (CMB).

Astronomers first observed the CMB in 1965, and it quickly created problems for the big bang theory — problems that were subsequently addressed (for a while) in 1981 with the inflation theory.

This theory entails an extremely rapid expansion of the universe in the first few moments of its existence.

It also accounts for temperature and density fluctuations in the CMB, but dictates that those fluctuations should be uniform.

In chaotic inflation theory, this concept goes even deeper: an endless progression of inflationary bubbles, each becoming a universe, and each of these birthing even more inflationary bubbles in an immeasurable multiverse.

Other scientists place the formation of the singularity inside a cycle called the big bounce in which our expanding universe will eventually collapse back in on itself in an event called the big crunch.

A singularity once more, the universe will then expand in another big bang.

This process would be eternal and, as such, every big bang and big crunch the universe ever experiences would be nothing but a rebirth into another phase of existence.

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