Tag: History

European Colonization Of Americas Wiped Out Native Dogs Alongside Indigenous People

European colonisers arriving in the Americas almost totally wiped out the dogs that had been kept by indigenous people across the region for thousands of years.

The original American dogs were brought across the land bridge that once connected North America and Siberia over 10,000 years ago, by their human owners.

These dogs subsequently spread throughout North and South America, but genetic analysis has revealed they were ultimately replaced by dogs imported from Europe.

This study demonstrates that the history of humans is mirrored in our domestic animals,” said Professor Greger Larson, director of the palaeogenomics and bio-archaeology research network at the University of Oxford and senior author of the research.

People in Europe and the Americas were genetically distinct, and so were their dogs. And just as indigenous people in the Americas were displaced by European colonists, the same is true of their dogs.




In their paper, published in the journal Science, the researchers compared genetic information from dozens of ancient North American and Siberian dogs spanning a period of 9,000 years.

Their analysis showed the dogs persisted for a long time but ultimately vanished, which to Dr Laurent Frantz from Queen Mary University of London said suggests “something catastrophic must have happened”.

It is fascinating that a population of dogs that inhabited many parts of the Americas for thousands of years, and that was an integral part of so many Native American cultures, could have disappeared so rapidly,” said Dr Frantz, who was also a senior author of the study.

Today, few modern dogs possess any genetic traces of the ancient breeds.

The researchers suggested the dogs’ near-total disappearance from the region was likely a result of both disease and cultural changes brought over by Europeans.

It is possible, for example, that European colonists discouraged the sale and breeding of the dogs kept by indigenous Americans.

It is known how indigenous peoples of the Americas suffered from the genocidal practices of European colonists after contact,” said Kelsey Witt, who led part of the genome work as a graduate student at the University of Illinois.

Bizarrely, one of the only traces of genetic information from “pre-contact” dogs can be found in a transmissible tumour that spreads between dogs known as CTVT.

It’s quite incredible to think that possibly the only survivor of a lost dog lineage is a tumour that can spread between dogs as an infection,” added Maire Ní Leathlobhair, co-first author, from the University of Cambridge.

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How People Really Lived During the Stone Age

cave man

The Paleo diet is just the beginning. It’s the gateway to an entire suite of lifestyle prescriptions devoted to mimicking the way our ancestors ate, moved, slept, and bred nearly 10,000 years ago in the Paleolithic era of hunting and gathering, an era Paleo followers associate with strong bodies and minds.

Members of this modern-day caveman community believe the path to optimal health is through eating only what our ancestors ate before modern agriculture and a shift to more sedentary ways.




Devoted proponents of a Paleo lifestyle not only subsist primarily on meat and eschew carbs; they also exercise in short bursts of activity intended to mimic escaping prey.

Even blood donation has become a Paleo fad among the most dogmatic of 21st-century cavemen, based on the notion that our ancestors were often wounded, making blood loss a way of life.

But new research reveals flaws in the logic behind these trends. As evolutionary and genetic science show, humans, like all other living beings, have always been a work in progress and never completely in sync with the natural world.

Survive-in-the-wild

If we’re going to romanticize and emulate a particular point in our evolutionary history, why not go all the way back to when our ape ancestors spent their days swinging from tree to tree?

It is hard to argue that a simpler life with more exercise, fewer processed foods, and closer contact with our children may well be good for us, but rather than renouncing modern living for the sake of our Stone Age genes, we need to understand how evolution has—and hasn’t—suited us for the world we inhabit now.

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The Mystery Of How Easter Island Statues Got Their Colossal Hats Might Finally Be Solved

It’s a towering problem, one to stump the most determined of milliners. You’ve carved almost 1,000 immense statues standing up to 10 metres (33 ft) tall. And now you want to put their hats on.

There’s just one problem. The hats, like the graven colossi themselves, are hewn out of solid rock, and weigh several tonnes a piece. How on Earth could you ever lift and fit this hulking headwear?

This ancient puzzle is just one of many posed by the strange stone legacy of Easter Island, whose unflinching moai statues maintain their silent vigil long centuries after the mysterious collapse of the Polynesian Rapa Nui society that erected them.

Of the many questions that surround the island’s past, two tend to stand out,” explains anthropologist Carl Lipo from Binghamton University.

How did people of the past move such massive statues, and how did they place such massive stone hats (pukao) on top of their heads?




Researchers already solved the first part of the puzzle. For decades, archaeologists have experimented with various methods of ‘walking’ the moai – rocking replica statues from side to side along prepared paths, ever slowly inching the towering figures forward.

It’s kind of like shuffling a fridge into a new kitchen (although decidedly more epic).

But what about the world’s heaviest hats?

In a new study, Lipo and his team suggest that the cylindrical pukao – with diameters up to 2 metres (6.5 feet) and weighing 12 tonnes – may have been rolled across the island from the red scoria quarries they were cut from.

A diagram of how the pukao might have been placed.

That’s how they were transported to the moai, but to lift them onto the statues’ elevated heads, props – and a little physics trickery – would be needed, with a ramp-and-ropes technique called parbuckling.

The solution may seem simple in hindsight, but to show that the hypothetical rig would have been workable for Rapa Nui islanders required building detailed 3D models of 50 pukao and 13 red scoria cylinders found on the island, and calculating how the huge hats may have been pulled up the inclined ahu platforms.

“Transport equations based on Newtonian physics, human strength estimates, and estimates of moai height and pukao mass at four different ahu verify that pukao transport by rolling up a ramp is physically feasible with 15 or fewer people,” the researchers write, “even in the case of the most massive pukao (about 12 metric tonnes).”

This technique means it wouldn’t have required huge number of peoples or resources to construct and assemble the moai and pukao, which helps discredit the view that the Rapa Nui may somehow have helped destroy their own civilisation through overpopulation taxing the island’s natural resources.

And yet, for all that ingenuity and coordinated effort, most of the pukao are sadly no longer affixed to the moai heads.

Centuries of weather, erosion, and animal activity have seen the majority of these rock hats fall back to Earth, where they rest crumbled and damaged around the island surface – which is one of the reasons you rarely see this monumental headwear in photos of the iconic statues.

Something to think about next time your hat blows off on a windy day.

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Here’s How To Purge Your Browsing History — No Questions Asked

Your online privacy is just as important as your offline privacy — if not more so. However, it’s not always easy to maintain.

Although surfing the internet in incognito mode is a great way to do so, it’s a good idea to know how to clear browsing history too. In this guide, we’ll walk you through it, no matter what browser you’re running.

If you want to go a step beyond this and keep your browsing history secret from remote services (and anyone who might be snooping on your connection), these are the best VPNs for both Windows and MacOSPCs.




Google Chrome

As the most popular web browser in the world, most of you are probably using Chrome. For the rest of you, scroll down, but if Chrome is your main browser, here’s how to clear your browsing history.

Step 1: Click the button represented by three vertical dots — it is located in the upper-right corner of your browser — to open a drop-down menu. Then select “Settings”.

Step 2: Scroll down and click the “Advanced” link next to the down-arrow.

Step 3: Scroll down until you see “Clear browsing data” and click it.

Step 4: This will open a window in which you can select the specific data you want to clear, including download history, passwords, and cookies. For our purposes, you should select Browsing history. You can also select the window of time you want to delete data from, whether it be the past hour or since the start of your browsing history.

Once you have decided how much data you want to delete, click “Clear browsing data.”

It’s a similar process for Chrome in MacOS, except that the three-dot button doesn’t exist. Instead, just click on Chrome in the menu bar and select on “Clear browsing data…” to get the screen options above.

Safari

The most common browser choice on Apple platforms, Safari, and its browsing history, is just as easy to clean out as Chrome’s.

Step 1: Find the “History” tab at the top of your screen and click “Clear History…

This will open a window that includes a drop-down menu, allowing you to decide what window of time you want to delete.

Once you select the time frame you want to delete, simply click the button labeled “Clear History.”

Firefox

Firefox’s new Quantum release could help return the browser to the popularity it once enjoyed. Here’s how to clear browsing history in Mozilla’s latest major release.

Step 1: Click the three-line button in the top right-hand corner and select “Options” from the resulting drop-down menu.

Step 2: Click the “Privacy and Security” tab and click “clear your recent history” under the “History” heading.

Step 3: A window will open, along with a drop-down menu where you can choose the amount of data you want to clear out. Click the “Details” arrow for more in-depth options if you prefer. Once you’ve made your decision, click “Clear Now.”

Opera

A long-running alternative to the big name browsers, Opera has remained competitive for more than two decades with good reason. Here’s how to clear its browsing history.

Step 1: Click the History icon in the left-hand menu. It looks like a small clock face.

Step 2: Click the “Clear browsing data” button on the right-hand side of the screen.

Step 3: Select the information you want to clear and the specific timeframe you want to be deleted, then click the blue “Clear browsing data” button.

Edge

The true successor to Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Edge has proved to be a very capable modern browser. This is how to clear out your browsing history in it.

Step 1: Click the Hub button — it looks like unequal lines — then click the History button, which looks like a clock with an arrow running counter-clockwise.

Step 2:  select “Clear All History.” This will provide you with options outlining the types of data you can delete. Be sure to select “Browsing History.”

Step 3: Click the gray “Clear” button.

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All By Itself, The Humble Sweet Potato Colonized The World

A chromolithograph of Christopher Columbus arriving at the Caribbean.

Of all the plants that humanity has turned into crops, none is more puzzling than the sweet potato.

Indigenous people of Central and South America grew it on farms for generations, and Europeans discovered it when Christopher Columbus arrived in the Caribbean.

In the 18th century, however, Captain Cook stumbled across sweet potatoes again — over 4,000 miles away, on remote Polynesian islands. European explorers later found them elsewhere in the Pacific, from Hawaii to New Guinea.

The distribution of the plant baffled scientists. How could sweet potatoes arise from a wild ancestor and then wind up scattered across such a wide range?

Was it possible that unknown explorers carried it from South America to countless Pacific islands?

An extensive analysis of sweet potato DNA, published on Thursday in Current Biology, comes to a controversial conclusion: Humans had nothing to do with it.




The bulky sweet potato spread across the globe long before humans could have played a part — it’s a natural traveler.

Some agricultural experts are skeptical.

This paper does not settle the matter,” said Logan J. Kistler, the curator of archaeogenomics and archaeobotany at the Smithsonian Institution.

Alternative explanations remain on the table, because the new study didn’t provide enough evidence for exactly where sweet potatoes were first domesticated and when they arrived in the Pacific.

We still don’t have a smoking gun,” Dr. Kistler said.

The sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas, is one of the most valuable crops in the world, providing more nutrients per farmed acre than any other staple.  It has sustained human communities for centuries.

A sweet potato farmer in in Papua New Guinea. The plant arrived there long before humans, scientists reported.

 

Scientists have offered a number of theories to explain the wide distribution of I. batatas.

Some scholars proposed that all sweet potatoes originated in the Americas, and that after Columbus’s voyage, they were spread by Europeans to colonies such as the Philippines. Pacific Islanders acquired the crops from there.

As it turned out, though, Pacific Islanders had been growing the crop for generations by the time Europeans showed up. On one Polynesian island, archaeologists have found sweet potato remains dating back over 700 years.

A radically different hypothesis emerged: Pacific Islanders, masters of open-ocean navigation, picked up sweet potatoes by voyaging to the Americas, long before Columbus’s arrival there.

The evidence included a suggestive coincidence: In Peru, some indigenous people call the sweet potato cumara. In New Zealand, it’s kumara.

A potential link between South America and the Pacific was the inspiration for Thor Heyerdahl’s famous 1947 voyage aboard the Kon-Tiki. He built a raft, which he then successfully sailed from Peru to the Easter Islands.

Genetic evidence only complicated the picture. Examining the plant’s DNA, some researchers concluded that sweet potatoes arose only once from a wild ancestor, while other studies indicated that it happened at two different points in history.

According to the latter studies, South Americans domesticated sweet potatoes, which were then acquired by Polynesians. Central Americans domesticated a second variety that later was picked up by Europeans.

Hoping to shed light on the mystery, a team of researchers recently undertook a new study — the biggest survey of sweet potato DNA yet. And they came to a very different conclusion.

Their research pointed to only one wild plant as the ancestor of all sweet potatoes. The closest wild relative is a weedy flower called Ipomoea trifida that grows around the Caribbean.

Its pale purple flowers look a lot like those of the sweet potato.

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This Prehistoric ‘Sea Monster’ May Be Largest That Ever Lived

This reassembled jaw bone belonged to the 85-foot ichthyosaur.

The ancient remains of a gigantic marine reptile have been found in southwestern England.

Known as an ichthyosaur, the animal lived about 205 million years ago and was up to 85 feet long—almost as big as a blue whale, say the authors of a study describing the fossil published today in PLOS ONE.

Biology textbook have long touted the modern blue whale as the largest animal that ever lived, but this and other fascinating fossil finds hint that there may once have been even bigger creatures swimming Earth’s seas.

What is this animal?

Ichthyosaurs were ocean-going contemporaries of the dinosaurs, with body shapes superficially similar to dolphins.

They reached their greatest diversity about 210 million years ago in the late Triassic, but some persisted into the late Cretaceous.




They vanished from the fossil record about 25 million years before the mass extinction that wiped out the non-avian dinosaurs.

Most ichthyosaurs were much smaller than the newly discovered creature—several species in the genus Ichthyosaurus also found in the U.K. were just 5 to 11 feet long.

How did paleontologists find it?

Self-taught fossil hunter and study coauthor Paul de la Salle was combing the beach at Lilstock, Somerset, in May 2016 when he found a large and puzzling chunk of fossil bone.

Suspecting it might be an ichthyosaur, he sent images to marine reptile experts Dean Lomax at the University of Manchester in the U.K. and Judy Massare at SUNY Brockport in New York.

Further searching revealed five fossil pieces that fitted together to form a 3.2-foot-long bone, which the scientists identified as being from the lower jaw of an ichthyosaur.

Based on the size of the bone, the scientists think this ichthyosaur was bigger than any previously known to science.

Reconstructions of the giant ichthyosaur Shonisaurus show its skeletal structure and what it might have looked like in life.

Why is this discovery important?

Lomax says the discovery has led them to reinterpret a whole series of isolated bones found near the village of Aust in Gloucestershire, England.

Some collected as early as 1850, these fragments had long been interpreted to be the limb or other bones of terrestrial dinosaurs, but this never quite made sense.

The scientists realized these pieces also belonged to giant ichthyosaurs—and possibly to ones even bigger than the newly identified animal.

Darren Naish, a paleontologist at the University of Southampton in the U.K., agrees that the sizes of all these bones are astounding.

He is part of a different team that recently examined the Aust bones and similarly concluded that they belonged to enormous ichthyosaurs.

He concurs with the size estimates of the study authors, and says that these animals were “approaching or exceeding various giant baleen whales in size.

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Why Our Ancestors Drilled Holes In Each Other’s Skull

The earliest clear evidence of trepanation dates to approximately 7,000 years ago. It was practised in places as diverse as Ancient Greece, North and South America, Africa, Polynesia and the Far East.

People probably developed the practice independently in several locations.

Trepanation had been abandoned by most cultures by the end of the Middle Ages, but the practice was still being carried out in a few isolated parts of Africa and Polynesia until the early 1900s.

Since the very first scientific studies on trepanation were published in the 19th Century, scholars have continued to argue that ancient humans sometimes performed trepanation to allow the passage of spirits into or out of the body, or as part of an initiation rite.

However, convincing evidence is hard to come by. It is almost impossible to completely rule out the possibility that a trepanation was carried out for medical reasons, because some brain conditions leave no trace on the skull.




However, in a small corner of Russia archaeologists have turned up some of the best evidence for ritual trepanation ever discovered.

The story begins in 1997. Archaeologists were excavating a prehistoric burial site close to the city of Rostov-on-Don in the far south of Russia, near the northern reaches of the Black Sea.

The site contained the skeletal remains of 35 humans, distributed among 20 separate graves. Based on the style of the burials, the archaeologists knew that they dated to between approximately 5,000 and 3,000 BC, a period known as the Chalcolithic or “Copper Age“.

One of the graves contained the skeletons of five adults – two women and three men – together with an infant aged between one and two years, and a girl in her mid-teens.

Finding multiple skeletons in the same prehistoric grave is not particularly unusual. But what had been done to their skulls was: the two women, two of the men and the teenage girl had all been trepanned.

Each of their skulls contained a single hole, several centimetres wide and roughly ellipsoidal in shape, with signs of scraping around the edges.

The skull of the third man contained a depression which also showed evidence of having been carved, but not an actual hole. Only the infant’s skull was unblemished.

The job of analysing the contents of the grave fell to Elena Batieva, an anthropologist now at the Southern Federal University in Rostov-on-Don, Russia.

She immediately recognised the holes as trepanations, and she soon realised that these trepanations were unusual.

They had all been made in almost exactly the same location: a point on the skull called the “obelion“. The obelion is on the top of the skull and towards the rear, roughly where a high ponytail might be gathered.

Less than 1% of all recorded trepanations are located above the obelion point. What’s more, Batieva knew that such trepanations were even less common in ancient Russia.

As far as she was aware at the time, there was just one other recorded case of an obelion trepanation: a skull unearthed in 1974 at an archaeological site remarkably close to the one she was excavating.

Clearly, finding even one obelion trepanation is remarkable. But Batieva was looking at five, all of them buried in the same grave. This was, and is, unprecedented.

There is a good reason why obelion trepanation is uncommon: it is very dangerous.

The obelion point is located directly above the superior sagittal sinus, where blood from the brain collects before flowing into the brain’s main outgoing veins.

Opening the skull in this location would have risked major haemorrhage and death.

This suggests the Copper Age inhabitants of Russia must have had good reason to perform such trepanation procedures.

Yet none of the skulls showed any signs of having suffered any injury or illness, before or after the trepanation had been performed.

In other words, it appeared as if all of these people were trepanned while they were completely healthy. Was their trepanation evidence of some sort of ritual?

It was an intriguing possibility. However, Batieva had to give up the trail. She had many more skeletons to analyse from all over southern Russia, and could not afford to get sidetracked by just a few skulls, however enigmatic.

Before she gave up, Batieva decided to search through Russia’s unpublished archaeological records, in case any more strange obelion trepanations had been discovered but not reported.

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Neanderthals Used Fire To Create Wooden Tools For Hunting And Foraging 170,000 Years Ago

Neanderthals in southern Tuscany used fire to manufacture wooden tools used for foraging and hunting around 171,000 years ago, experts have found.

Experts used radiometric dating, which measures the decay of radioactive particles, to establish the age of a trove of wooden implements and bones they uncovered.

The finds furnish some of the earliest evidence of wood processing and fire use by Neanderthals.

The find was made by a team of researchers, including the Ministry of Heritage and Cultural Activities in Florence.

In 2012, excavations for building thermal baths at Poggetti Vecchi, nestled at the foot of a hill in Grosseto in southern Tuscany, turned up the collection of ancient artefacts.




This included wooden sticks and the fossilised bones of a straight-tusked elephant, Palaeoloxodon antiquus. Most of the wooden implements were hewn from boxwood branches and likely used as digging sticks.

Such digging sticks have been known to be used for gathering plants and hunting small game.

The ends of the metre long (40 inch) sticks were fashioned into blunt points and had rounded handles useful for foraging.

Cut marks and striations, a series of linear marks, on the sticks bear witness to the manufacturing process.

Signs of superficial charring and microanalysis of blackened surfaces suggest the use of fire, in addition to stone tools, to scrape and shape the sticks.

Boxwood is among the hardiest and heaviest of European timbers. It choice as a preferred material suggests the technical mastery of toolmaking by early Neanderthals.

The find also provides some of the earliest evidence for the use of fire for fabricating wooden tools.

Writing in the report, its authors said: ‘Wood is a widely available and versatile material, which has admittedly played a fundamental role in all human history.

Wood, however, is most vulnerable to decomposition. Hence, its use is very rarely documented during prehistory.

The present study yields new insights into the cognitive abilities of the early Neanderthals in wooden tool production and pyrotechnology.

The early Neanderthals from the late Middle Pleistocene site of Poggetti Vecchi were able to choose the appropriate timber and to process it with fire to produce tools. 

“The artefacts recall the so-called “digging sticks,” multipurpose tools used by all hunter-gatherer societies.”

The full findings were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

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Study Reveals Prehistoric Humans Loved Their Dogs

The longstanding belief about human-canine relationships is that the world’s earliest dogs were mere work animals used to hunt game, but it turns out 7,000 to 8,000 years ago, Early Neolithic Siberian foragers had a soft spot for prehistoric Fido.

By analyzing 17 canine burial sites throughout the region, a team of anthropologists was able to determine quite a bit about the relationship between ancient Siberian foragers and their canine companions, which scientists believe looked a lot like large versions of the Siberian Husky.

University of Alberta anthropologist and lead author of the study Robert Losey says dog owners commonly lived near bodies of water, and the Lake Baikal region in modern day Siberia, as well as the areas near the Angara and Lena Rivers, seemed to fit the bill.

By examining sites in these areas, Losey and his team discovered that these Neolithic foragers and their dogs subsisted on the same diet, which included a lot of fish and seal.




“Dog burials appear to be more common in areas where diets were rich in aquatic foods because these same areas also appear to have had the densest human populations and the most cemeteries,” Losey tells Discovery News.

While humans in largely pastoral communities seemed to rarely bury their dogs after death, dogs who lived in hunter-gatherer communities like those in Siberia seemed to share a close and personal connection with their people and were often buried ceremoniously — and not as a celebration of the canine’s hunting skills, evidence suggests.

If the practice of burying dogs was solely related to their importance in procuring terrestrial game, we would expect to see them in the Early Holocene (around 9,000 years ago),” Losey explains.

The level of care with which these dogs were buried — alongside treasured items the dogs likely used everyday, and in some cases alongside their human companions — suggest a special bond must have existed between these ancient peoples and their four-legged friends.

One dog was laid to rest with what looked like a small round stone in his mouth, which the team interpreted to be either some sort of a toy or a special token. Other prehistoric pooches were entombed in death with trinkets like spoons and knives.

Unearthing another site revealed the skeleton of a man who was buried alongside his two dogs, the remains of each dog carefully placed to the left and right of the person.

Maybe the most interesting — and heartwarming, even — burial site contained the ancient remains of a dog whose owner lovingly placed a necklace made of four red deer tooth pendants around the pup’s neck.

A necklace fashioned in the same style as others worn by humans of the time. Perhaps the necklace was the forager’s way of honoring his best friend.

I think the hunter-gatherers here saw some of their dogs as being nearly the same as themselves,” Losey says, “even at a spiritual level.

People came to know them as unique, special individuals,” he adds.

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Meet Cheddar Man: First Modern Britons Had Dark Skin And Blue Eyes

They call him Cheddar Man.

He lived more than 10,000 years ago, had brown hair, blue eyes and “dark to black” skin. To the surprise of many, he is believed to have been the first modern Briton.

A new project from London’s Natural History Museum and University College London has revealed groundbreaking DNA results that give a much clearer image of early British inhabitants.

Cheddar Man’s skeleton was discovered in 1903 in Gough’s Cave, located in Cheddar Gorge in Somerset, England. It is thought that the cool temperature in the cave helped to preserve the skeleton’s valuable DNA.

If the body was deposited in a good environment, where there was a cool and constant temperature, then the petrous bone is a good place to find useful ancient DNA,” said the Natural History Museum’s Selina Brace, who specializes in the study of ancient DNA.

Scientists obtained DNA from Cheddar Man by drilling a 2-millimeter hole in his skull and extracting bone powder.




Initially, it was assumed that the man, who died in his 20s, had pale skin, but new analysis and facial reconstruction have revealed quite the opposite.

It is now believed that Cheddar Man’s ancestors arrived in Britain via the Middle East after leaving Africa.

Cheddar Man is special because he represents the population occupying Europe at the time,” said Tom Booth, a bio-archaeologist at the museum.

They had dark skin, and most of them had pigmented eyes, either blue or green.” Data and software used in forensics gave Booth and the team a clearer understanding of Cheddar Man’s skin pigmentation and how dark it was.

The investigation into the skeletal remains revealed that Cheddar Man had “genetic markers of skin pigmentation usually associated with sub-Saharan Africa.”

The skull of Cheddar Man

Cheddar Man’s skeleton revealed damage to the front of the skull, which led us to believe he had a violent death. But when we looked again, it appeared likely that the damage occurred since being dug up,” Booth explained.

“It’s quite hard to figure out from the bones how he died, as most illnesses don’t leave a trace on human remains.”

Using 3-D printing, Adrie and Alfons Kennis were able to bring Cheddar Man to life. The model took several months to build and is described as “truly unique.”

Booth described their work as “amazing” and said the two brothers are skilled “wizards” who were able to bring years of hard work and research to life.

Experts say the ancestor was a Mesolithic hunter-gatherer who would have spent his days carving tools, fishing and hunting animals. Researchers say he was around 166 centimeters (5’4 inches) in height.

It is believed that Cheddar Man is related to 1 in 10 people living across the United Kingdom today.

It didn’t take long for Cheddar Man to trend worldwide on Twitter. Reactions to the extraordinary findings were mixed. Some praised the work of those involved with the reconstruction of Britain’s oldest skeleton.

Others focused on the racial tension in Britain and pointed out that perhaps not all Brits would be happy about their ties to the ancient human.

Cheddar Man’s complete skeleton has been lent to the museum and is currently on display.

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