Tag: NASA

‘First Man’ Star Ryan Gosling Doesn’t Want to Go to the Moon

Ryan Gosling may play a pretty convincing Neil Armstrong in the new biopic “First Man,” but that iconic role as the famed Apollo 11 moonwalker didn’t inspire the movie star to dream of taking such a “giant leap” in real life.

In an interview with Space.com at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, Gosling said that if he were given the opportunity to blast off on a mission to the moon, he would pass.

I had a great experience pretending to go there, and I’m happy with that,” he said.

Meanwhile, his co-star Claire Foy (who plays Neil Armstrong’s wife, Janet) seemed a bit more open to the idea of going to the moon, but “not right now,” she said.




Once they’ve done, you know, at least 4,000 trips, I’ll get on one.” Considering that no one has set foot on the moon in nearly 46 years — and that no human missions to the lunar surface are currently in the works — Foy may never make it to the moon at this rate.

Gosling may have no desire to walk on the moon, but his experience on the set of “First Man” brought him closer to a real moonwalking experience than most Earthlings will ever get.

All the things that we shot on the moon were very surreal,” he said.

They did such a good job of sculpting that lunar surface, and I think the only time I was completely in the Apollo 11 suit I was listening to comms from the original recording, so I could hear Buzz, I could hear mission control.

I felt very selfish in a way, because I was having this really special experience, but I think the beauty of the way Damien shot it is that the audience gets to experience it the same way I did,” he said, referring to the director, Damien Chazelle.

All of the moon scenes were filmed with IMAX cameras to provide an “immersive experience” for viewers, Chazelle said.

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According To NASA, Voyager 2 May Be Leaving the Solar System Soon

This NASA diagram illustrates the hypothesized positions of Voyagers 1 and 2 in the solar system as of October 2018. Voyager 1 reached interstellar space in 2012. Voyager 2 may soon hit that milestone.

Want to get away? Want to get far, far away? Voyager 2 has you beat: The spacecraft, launched in 1977, is approaching the edge of the solar system, according to a NASA statement released today (Oct. 5).

That announcement is based on two different instruments on board, which in late August began noticing a small uptick in how many cosmic rays — superfast particles pummeling the solar system from outer space — were hitting the spacecraft.

That matches pretty well with what Voyager 1 began experiencing about three months before its own grand departure in 2012, but scientists can’t be sure of the milestone until after it has been passed.

We’re seeing a change in the environment around Voyager 2, there’s no doubt about that,” Voyager Project Scientist Ed Stone, a physicist at Caltech, said in the statement.




We’re going to learn a lot in the coming months, but we still don’t know when we’ll reach the heliopause. We’re not there yet — that’s one thing I can say with confidence.

The team behind Voyager 2 knows that the spacecraft is currently almost 11 billion miles (17.7 billion kilometers) away from Earth.

But it’s hard to predict when the spacecraft will actually leave the solar system by passing through what scientists call the heliopause.

The heliopause is the bubble around our solar system formed by the solar wind, the rush of charged particles that constantly streams off our sun.

The rate of energetic interstellar particles detected by Voyager 2 started to rise at the end of August 2018. Each point represents a 6-hour average.

But that solar wind ebbs and flows over the course of the sun’s 11-year cycle, which means that the bubble of our solar system itself expands and contracts.

And because Voyager 2 isn’t following precisely in its predecessor’s steps, scientists aren’t positive that its cosmic exit will result in identical changes to the data that the spacecraft reports.

So until Voyager 2 passes through the heliopause, there’s no way to be sure precisely where it is with regard to the heliopause.

Whenever it does successfully flee the solar system, Voyager 2 will become just the second human-made object to do so.

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Curiosity Switches ‘Brains’ As NASA Activates Backup Computer In Bid To Bring Crippled Rover Back To Full Operation

NASA has switched its Curiosity rover to a ‘backup brain’ in a bid to restore to rover.

The Martian vehicle has been suffering from a major technical issue that has prevented the rover’s active computer from storing science and some key engineering data since Sept. 15.

Researchers hope that by switching the rover to its backup side, it can resume full functionality.

At this point, we’re confident we’ll be getting back to full operations, but it’s too early to say how soon,” said Steven Lee of JPL, Curiosity’s deputy project manager.

Like many NASA spacecraft, Curiosity was designed with two, computers, known as a Side-A and a Side-B computer.




After reviewing several options, JPL engineers recommended that the rover switch from Side B to Side A, the computer the rover used initially after landing.

We are operating on Side A starting today, but it could take us time to fully understand the root cause of the issue and devise workarounds for the memory on Side B,” said Lee.

We spent the last week checking out Side A and preparing it for the swap,” Lee said.

‘It’s certainly possible to run the mission on the Side-A computer if we really need to.

But our plan is to switch back to Side B as soon as we can fix the problem to utilize its larger memory size.

The rover continues to send limited engineering data stored in short-term memory when it connects to a relay orbiter, adn NASA says it is otherwise healthy and receiving commands.

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Astronomers May Have Discovered The First Moon Ever Found Outside Our Solar System

An artistic rendering of the Kepler-1625b planetary system.

A pair of astronomers believes they’ve found a moon orbiting a planet outside our Solar System — something that has never before been confirmed to exist.

Though they aren’t totally certain of their discovery yet, the find opens up the possibility that more distant moons are out there. And that could change our understanding of how the Universe is structured.

The astronomy team from Columbia University found this distant satellite, known as an exomoon, using two of NASA’s space telescopes.

They first spotted a signal from the object in data collected by the planet-hunting telescope Kepler, and then they followed up with the Hubble Space Telescope, which is in orbit around Earth.

Thanks to the observations from these two spacecraft, the team suspect this moon orbits around a Jupiter-sized planet located about 4,000 light-years from Earth. And this planet, dubbed Kepler-1625b, orbits around a star similar to our Sun.

Scientists have strongly believed for decades that moons exist outside our Solar System, but these objects have remained elusive for scientists up until now.




There have been just a couple of candidates that astronomers have speculated about in the past, but nothing has been confirmed.

That’s because moons are thought to be too small and too faint to pick up from Earth. However, this suspected exomoon, detailed today in the journal Science Advances, is particularly large, about the size of Neptune, making it one of the few targets that our telescopes can detect.

You can make the argument that this is the lowest hanging fruit,” Alex Teachey, an astronomy graduate student at Columbia University and one of the lead authors on the paper said.

“Because it is so large, in some ways, this is the first thing we should detect because it is the easiest.”

Teachey argues that finding more moons outside our Solar System will change our understanding of how planetary systems formed thousands of light-years away.

Our cosmic neighborhood is filled with moons, and they explain a lot about how our planets came to be. Exomoons could tell similar tales.

NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope.

However, none of our moons come close to the size of this one, which creates a puzzle for astronomers.

Because it is so unusual, or at least has not been anticipated largely by the community, this poses new challenges to explain it,” says Teachey. “How do you get something like this?

It was only a few decades ago — in the late 1980s and early 1990s — that astronomers confirmed the existence of planets outside our Solar System.

Since then, thousands of these distant worlds, known as exoplanets, have been confirmed by spacecraft like Kepler and other telescopes.

Perhaps the most popular way to find exoplanets is by staring at stars, waiting for them to flicker. When a planet crosses “in front” of its host star, it dims the stars’ light ever so slightly.

These dips in brightness can be used to determine how big a planet is and the kind of orbit it’s on.

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Happy Birthday, NASA! At 60, Agency Continues to Inspire

Workers replace the NACA logo with the NASA logo on October 1, 1958

Sixty years after its birth, NASA remains a rare unifying force.

The space agency opened for business on Oct. 1, 1958, two months after its creation by the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958.

During the ensuing six decades, NASA has managed to inspire people throughout the country and around the world without getting too bogged down by partisan politics or the conflicts and controversies that have affected other branches of the U.S. government.

NASA is one of the best — I hate to use the word, but I’ll say it — brands that this country has,” said John Logsdon, a professor emeritus of political science and international affairs at George Washington University’s Elliott School of International Affairs in Washington, D.C.

It’s projected an image of the United States that’s really positive, and that reflects how we want to see ourselves — as a country of people who accomplish difficult things.

In terms of U.S. government activities, “there’s been much less controversy about NASA than almost anything else,” Logsdon told Space.com.

There never has been, and is not now, an anti-NASA lobby or interest group or public group. At a minimum, people say about NASA, ‘Yeah, that’s a good thing.’ And a fair number of people say, ‘That’s great — that’s what we should be doing.’




The next 60 years

NASA will continue to do groundbreaking robotic exploration for decades to come.

But the agency’s cultural and societal influence may wane in the future as private spaceflight matures and starts doing big things in the flashy realm of crewed exploration, Logsdon said.

Those big things may include helping to establish human settlements on Mars and other deep-space destinations, as both SpaceX and Blue Origin — which are led by the billionaire entrepreneurs Elon Musk and Jeff Bezos, respectively — aim to do.

But NASA is working to send humans out into deep space as well, something the agency hasn’t done since the Apollo 17 astronauts returned from their moon mission in December 1972.

This push really began in 2004 with President George W. Bush’s Vision for Space Exploration, which called for NASA to retire the space shuttle program by 2010 and put boots on the moon again by 2020.

NASA’s current plan involves the construction of a small space station in lunar orbit by the mid-2020s. The outpost, known as the Lunar Orbital Platform-Gateway, will serve as a jumping-off point for missions to the moon’s surface, both robotic and crewed.

And, NASA officials say, the skills learned during the construction and operation of the Gateway will help humanity get to Mars, which the agency aims to do in the 2030s, in cooperation with international and commercial partners.

This journey to Mars could end up being the grandest adventure of the 21st century, one that future generations recall more clearly, and with even greater reverence, than the gray-haired among us regard the Apollo missions.

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NASA’s TESS Shares First Science Image in Hunt to Find New Worlds

NASA’s newest planet hunter, the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), is now providing valuable data to help scientists discover and study exciting new exoplanets, or planets beyond our solar system.

Part of the data from TESS’ initial science orbit includes a detailed picture of the southern sky taken with all four of the spacecraft’s wide-field cameras.

This “first light” science image captures a wealth of stars and other objects, including systems previously known to have exoplanets.

In a sea of stars brimming with new worlds, TESS is casting a wide net and will haul in a bounty of promising planets for further study,” said Paul Hertz, astrophysics division director at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

This first light science image shows the capabilities of TESS’ cameras, and shows that the mission will realize its incredible potential in our search for another Earth.

TESS acquired the image using all four cameras during a 30-minute period on Tuesday, Aug. 7. The black lines in the image are gaps between the camera detectors.

The images include parts of a dozen constellations, from Capricornus to Pictor, and both the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, the galaxies nearest to our own.

The small bright dot above the Small Magellanic Cloud is a globular cluster — a spherical collection of hundreds of thousands of stars — called NGC 104, also known as 47 Tucanae because of its location in the southern constellation Tucana, the Toucan.




Two stars, Beta Gruis and R Doradus, are so bright they saturate an entire column of pixels on the detectors of TESS’s second and fourth cameras, creating long spikes of light.

This swath of the sky’s southern hemisphere includes more than a dozen stars we know have transiting planets based on previous studies from ground observatories,” said George Ricker, TESS principal investigator at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research in Cambridge.

TESS’s cameras, designed and built by MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts, and the MIT Kavli Institute, monitor large swaths of the sky to look for transits.

Transits occur when a planet passes in front of its star as viewed from the satellite’s perspective, causing a regular dip in the star’s brightness.

TESS will spend two years monitoring 26 such sectors for 27 days each, covering 85 percent of the sky. During its first year of operations, the satellite will study the 13 sectors making up the southern sky.

Then TESS will turn to the 13 sectors of the northern sky to carry out a second year-long survey.

MIT coordinates with Northrop Grumman in Falls Church, Virginia, to schedule science observations. TESS transmits images every 13.7 days, each time it swings closest to Earth.

NASA’s Deep Space Network receives and forwards the data to the TESS Payload Operations Center at MIT for initial evaluation and analysis.

Full data processing and analysis takes place within the Science Processing and Operations Center pipeline at NASA’s Ames Research Center in Silicon Valley, California, which provides calibrated images and refined light curves that scientists can analyze to find promising exoplanet transit candidates.

TESS builds on the legacy of NASA’s Kepler spacecraft, which also uses transits to find exoplanets. TESS’s target stars are 30 to 300 light-years away and about 30 to 100 times brighter than Kepler’s targets, which are 300 to 3,000 light-years away.

The brightness of TESS’ targets make them ideal candidates for follow-up study with spectroscopy, the study of how matter and light interact.

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How To Protect Astronauts From Space Radiation On Mars

In this image taken by the Viking 1 orbiter in June 1976, the translucent layer above Mars’ dusty red surface is its atmosphere. Compared to Earth’s atmosphere, the thin Martian atmosphere is a less powerful shield against quick-moving, energetic particles that pelt in from all directions – which means astronauts on Mars will need protection from this harsh radiation environment.

On Aug. 7, 1972, in the heart of the Apollo era, an enormous solar flare exploded from the sun’s atmosphere. Along with a gigantic burst of light in nearly all wavelengths, this event accelerated a wave of energetic particles.

Mostly protons, with a few electrons and heavier elements mixed in, this wash of quick-moving particles would have been dangerous to anyone outside Earth’s protective magnetic bubble.

Luckily, the Apollo 16 crew had returned to Earth just five months earlier, narrowly escaping this powerful event.

In the early days of human space flight, scientists were only just beginning to understand how events on the sun could affect space, and in turn how that radiation could affect humans and technology.

Today, as a result of extensive space radiation research, we have a much better understanding of our space environment, its effects, and the best ways to protect astronauts—all crucial parts of NASA’s mission to send humans to Mars.

The Martian” film highlights the radiation dangers that could occur on a round trip to Mars. While the mission in the film is fictional, NASA has already started working on the technology to enable an actual trip to Mars in the 2030s.

In the film, the astronauts’ habitat on Mars shields them from radiation, and indeed, radiation shielding will be a crucial technology for the voyage.




From better shielding to advanced biomedical countermeasures, NASA currently studies how to protect astronauts and electronics from radiation – efforts that will have to be incorporated into every aspect of Mars mission planning, from spacecraft and habitat design to spacewalk protocols.

Radiation, at its most basic, is simply waves or sub-atomic particles that transports energy to another entity – whether it is an astronaut or spacecraft component.

The main concern in space is particle radiation. Energetic particles can be dangerous to humans because they pass right through the skin, depositing energy and damaging cells or DNA along the way.

This damage can mean an increased risk for cancer later in life or, at its worst, acute radiation sickness during the mission if the dose of energetic particles is large enough.

Fortunately for us, Earth’s natural protections block all but the most energetic of these particles from reaching the surface. A huge magnetic bubble, called the magnetosphere, which deflects the vast majority of these particles, protects our planet.

And our atmosphere subsequently absorbs the majority of particles that do make it through this bubble.

Importantly, since the International Space Station (ISS) is in low-Earth orbit within the magnetosphere, it also provides a large measure of protection for our astronauts.

“We have instruments that measure the radiation environment inside the ISS, where the crew are, and even outside the station,” said Kerry Lee, a scientist at NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston.

A long solar filament erupted into space on April 28-29, 2015. This type of eruption, called a coronal mass ejection, or CME, is sometimes followed by a wave of high-energy particles that can be dangerous to astronauts and electronics outside the protection of Earth’s magnetic system and atmosphere. For our journey to Mars, we will have to incorporate protection against this particle radiation into every aspect of mission planning.

This ISS crew monitoring also includes tracking of the short-term and lifetime radiation doses for each astronaut to assess the risk for radiation-related diseases.

Although NASA has conservative radiation limits greater than allowed radiation workers on Earth, the astronauts are able to stay well under NASA’s limit while living and working on the ISS, within Earth’s magnetosphere.

But a journey to Mars requires astronauts to move out much further, beyond the protection of Earth’s magnetic bubble.

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NASA’s New Planet Hunter Has Already Spotted Two Candidates For Earth-Like Alien Worlds

 

NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) has only been on the job less than two months, and already it’s ponying up the planet goods.

The exoplanet-hunting space telescope has found two candidate planets, and there are plenty more on the horizon.

The two candidate planets are called Pi Mensae c, orbiting bright yellow dwarf star Pi Mensae, just under 60 light-years from Earth; and LHS 3844 b, orbiting red dwarf star LHS 3844, just under 49 light-years away.

TESS took its first test observations on July 25 (and managed to get some pretty great snaps of a passing comet), and its first official science observations began on August 7.

However, it was observing a large swathe of sky from the moment it opened its eyes – four optical cameras – and both discoveries are based on data from July 25 to August 22.

So far, they are only candidate planets, yet to be validated by the final review process. If they pass that test, they’ll go down in history as TESS’s first two discoveries. Here’s what we know so far about them.

Both planets appear to be Earth-like and rocky, but neither is habitable according to our guidelines – both are too close to their stars for liquid water.

Pi Mensae c, the first planet announced, is a super-Earth, clocking in at just over twice the size of Earth. It’s really close to Pi Mensae – it orbits the star in just 6.27 days.




A preliminary analysis indicates that the planet has a rocky iron core, and also contains a substantial proportion of lighter materials such as water, methane, hydrogen and helium – although we’ll need a more detailed survey to confirm that.

It also has a sibling – it’s not the first object to be found orbiting Pi Mensae. That honour goes to Pi Mensae b, an enormous planet with 10 times the mass of Jupiter discovered in 2001.

It’s much farther out than Pi Mensae c, on an orbit of 2,083 days. LHS 3844 b is a little bit smaller, classified as a “hot Earth“.

It’s just over 1.3 times the size of Earth, and on an incredibly tight orbit of just 11 hours. Since the two are so close together, it’s highly likely the planet is blasted with too much stellar radiation to retain an atmosphere.

TESS does need a bit of time to collect enough data for identifying an exoplanet.

Like its predecessor Kepler, it uses what is known as the transit method for detection – scanning and photographing a region of the sky multiple times, looking for changes in the brightness of stars in its field of view.

When a star dims repeatedly and regularly, that is a good indication that a planet is passing between it and TESS.

By using the amount the light dims, and Doppler spectroscopy – that is, changes in the star’s light as it moves ever-so-slightly backwards and forwards due to the gravitational tug on the planet – astronomers can infer details about the planet, such as its size and mass.

 

Using this method, Kepler has discovered 2,652 confirmed planets to date between its first and second missions, located between 300 to 3,000 light-years away.

Kepler is still operational, but barely; it’s only a matter of time until it completely runs out of fuel.

TESS’s search is happening a lot closer, with targets between 30 and 300 light-years away – stars brighter than those observed by Kepler.

Thus, the exoplanets it identifies will be strong candidates to observe using spectroscopy, the analysis of light.

When a planet passes in front of a star, it has an effect on the light from the star, changing it based on the composition of its atmosphere (if it has one).

Ground-based observatories and the James Webb Space Telescope (once it launches in 2021) will have to make those follow-up observations.

Both papers are available on preprint resource arXiv. Pi Mensa c can be found here, and LHS 3844 b can be found here.

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Who Is SpaceX’s Mystery Moon Passenger?

The moon is essentially grey, no color. Looks like plaster of Paris or sort of a grayish beach sand.

This was how Jim Lovell described the lunar surface in 1968 from his perch about 60 miles above the moon.

Lovell and his fellow NASA astronauts never touched down, but they returned to Earth with memories of what was, at the time, the closest view a human being had ever experienced of the planet’s rocky companion.

Nearly 50 years after the Apollo 8 mission, SpaceX wants to give someone that view again.

Elon Musk’s spaceflight company announced Thursday that it will send a private passenger to fly around the moon on its next launch system, the Big Falcon Rocket. The voyage is “an important step toward enabling access for everyday people who dream of traveling to space,” SpaceX said on Twitter.

SpaceX did not give a potential launch date or other details, but those may come Monday night, when the company said it would reveal the identity of the passenger.

This gives us a full weekend to speculate, and speculate we will. Because this trip, if it indeed moves forward—SpaceX previously announced and scrapped a similar plan—would make history.

And not because the voyage would be developed, funded, and operated by a commercial company, rather than NASA, but because the passenger is probably unlike anyone who has made the journey before.

Only 24 people have been to the moon. They were all American, male, and white.

So, who could this mystery moon traveler be?




In February of last year, SpaceX announced it would send two paying customers on a trip around the moon aboard the company’s Falcon Heavy rocket sometime in 2018.

The plan never materialized, likely because Musk eventually decided not to certify the Heavy for human spaceflight and focused on the development of the BFR instead.

The identities of these private citizens were never revealed, though Musk did say that “it’s nobody from Hollywood.” The passenger SpaceX plans to fly on the BFR may be one of them.

The passenger doesn’t have to be a U.S. citizen.

SpaceX will someday fly Americans, yes, but these will be the astronauts that NASA has chosen to test the company’s crew transportation system, which the space agency wants to use to ferry astronauts to and from the International Space Station.

Unlike that project, the BFR is not affiliated with or funded by NASA. After the announcement Thursday, when a Twitter user mused whether the lucky passenger may be Musk himself, Musk responded with the emoji for the Japanese flag, prompting some to throw out names of wealthy Japanese individuals with an interest in tech.

Russia, China, and India have all said they hope to put their astronauts on the moon, with India aiming to do so as early as 2022. SpaceX may beat them, and give another country the historic first.

Perhaps the voyage will record another first, for women. The Soviet Union sent the first woman to space, Valentina Tereshkova, in 1963. Twenty years later, the United States sent Sally Ride.

As of March of this year, 60 women from nine countries have gone to space, and several of them have made multiple trips, according to NASA. But none have been to the moon.

If this concept becomes reality, the mystery passenger—and the flight engineers picked to accompany them—will have plenty of leg room.

Their experience will be very unlike that of Jim Lovell and his fellow astronauts, who were packed like spacefaring sardines in the lunar module.

The view, however, will be the same. The window will fill up with the slate gray of the moon, with the texture of the ridges and craters of its surface.

And then, as the spaceship circles the moon, the Earth will slink into view from behind it. “Oh, my God! Look at that picture over there! Here’s the Earth coming up. Wow, is that pretty!” exclaimed one of the NASA astronauts 60 years ago when he snapped a photograph of that view, the now iconic “Earthrise” shot.

Whomever the mystery SpaceX passenger is, let’s hope they don’t forget to pack a camera.

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Legacy Of NASA’s Dawn, Near The End Of Its Mission

 

An ion propulsion system.

After 11 years of gathering breathtaking imagery, and performing unprecedented feats of spacecraft engineering, Dawn – NASA’s space probe for the asteroid belt – is drawing to a close due to lack of a key fuel, the US space agency said.

Launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in September 2007, Dawn was majorly tasked to study two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt Vesta and Ceres, which when combined, make up 45 percent of the mass of the main asteroid belt.

The spacecraft is likely to run out of a fuel known as hydrazine, which keeps it oriented and in communication with Earth – between September and October.

When that happens, Dawn will lose its ability to communicate with Earth, but will remain in a silent orbit around Ceres for decades, NASA said in a statement late on Thursday.

Not only did this spacecraft unlock scientific secrets at these two small but significant worlds, it was also the first spacecraft to visit and orbit bodies at two extraterrestrial destinations during its mission,” Lori Glaze, acting director of the Planetary Science Division at Headquarters in Washington, said.




From 2011 to 2012, the spacecraft swept over Vesta, capturing images of craters, canyons and even mountains of this planet-like world.

Then in 2015, Dawn’s cameras spotted a cryovolcano and mysterious bright spots on Ceres, which scientists later found might be salt deposits produced by the exposure of briny liquid from Ceres’ interior.

Dawn has shown us alien worlds that, for two centuries, were just pinpoints of light amidst the stars. And it has produced these richly detailed, intimate portraits and revealed exotic, mysterious landscapes unlike anything we’ve ever seen,” said Marc Rayman, Dawn’s mission director and chief engineer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, in California.

It has continued to gather high-resolution images, gamma ray and neutron spectra, infrared spectra and gravity data at Ceres.

Nearly once a day, Dawn will swoop over Ceres about 35 kilometers from its surface – only about three times the altitude of a passenger jet – gathering valuable data until it expends the last of the hydrazine that feeds thrusters controlling its orientation.

Engineers have designed Dawn’s final orbit – around Ceres, which has no atmosphere – to ensure it will not crash for at least 20 years, and likely decades longer, NASA said.

According to Rayman, Dawn’s is “an inert, celestial monument to human creativity and ingenuity.

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